DU-Shapley: A Shapley Value Proxy for Efficient Dataset Valuation

by   Felipe Garrido-Lucero, et al.

Many machine learning problems require performing dataset valuation, i.e. to quantify the incremental gain, to some relevant pre-defined utility, of aggregating an individual dataset to others. As seminal examples, dataset valuation has been leveraged in collaborative and federated learning to create incentives for data sharing across several data owners. The Shapley value has recently been proposed as a principled tool to achieve this goal due to formal axiomatic justification. Since its computation often requires exponential time, standard approximation strategies based on Monte Carlo integration have been considered. Such generic approximation methods, however, remain expensive in some cases. In this paper, we exploit the knowledge about the structure of the dataset valuation problem to devise more efficient Shapley value estimators. We propose a novel approximation of the Shapley value, referred to as discrete uniform Shapley (DU-Shapley) which is expressed as an expectation under a discrete uniform distribution with support of reasonable size. We justify the relevancy of the proposed framework via asymptotic and non-asymptotic theoretical guarantees and show that DU-Shapley tends towards the Shapley value when the number of data owners is large. The benefits of the proposed framework are finally illustrated on several dataset valuation benchmarks. DU-Shapley outperforms other Shapley value approximations, even when the number of data owners is small.


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