Does deep machine vision have just noticeable difference (JND)?

02/16/2021 ∙ by Jian Jin, et al. ∙ 12

As an important perceptual characteristic of the Human Visual System (HVS), the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) has been studied for decades with image/video processing (e.g., perceptual image/video coding). However, there is little exploration on the existence of JND for AI, like Deep Machine Vision (DMV), although the DMV has made great strides in many machine vision tasks. In this paper, we take an initial attempt, and demonstrate that DMV does have the JND, termed as DMVJND. Besides, we propose a JND model for the classification task in DMV. It has been discovered that DMV can tolerate distorted images with average PSNR of only 9.56dB (the lower the better), by generating JND via unsupervised learning with our DMVJND-NET. In particular, a semantic-guided redundancy assessment strategy is designed to constrain the magnitude and spatial distribution of the JND. Experimental results on classification tasks demonstrate that we successfully find and model the JND for deep machine vision. Meanwhile, our DMV-JND paves a possible direction for DMV oriented image/video compression, watermarking, quality assessment, deep neural network security, and so on.

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