Distributed Routing in a Quantum Internet

by   Kaushik Chakraborty, et al.

We develop new routing algorithms for a quantum network with noisy quantum devices such that each can store a small number of qubits. We thereby consider two models for the operation of such a network. The first is a continuous model, in which entanglement between a subset of the nodes is produced continuously in the background. This can in principle allows the rapid creation of entanglement between more distant nodes using the already pre-generated entanglement pairs in the network. The second is an on-demand model, where entanglement production does not commence before a request is made. Our objective is to find protocols, that minimise the latency of the network to serve a request to create entanglement between two distant nodes in the network. We propose three routing algorithms and analytically show that as expected when there is only a single request in the network, then employing them on the continuous model yields a lower latency than on the on-demand one. We study the performance of the routing algorithms in a ring, grid, and recursively generated network topologies. We also give an analytical upper bound on the number of entanglement swap operations the nodes need to perform for routing entangled links between a source and a destination yielding a lower bound on the end to end fidelity of the shared entangled state. We proceed to study the case of multiple concurrent requests and show that in some of the scenarios the on-demand model can outperform the continuous one. Using numerical simulations on ring and grid networks we also study the behaviour of the latency of all the routing algorithms. We observe that the proposed routing algorithms behave far better than the existing classical greedy routing algorithm. The simulations also help to understand the advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous models for different types of demands.


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