Distilling GHZ States using Stabilizer Codes

09/13/2021
by   Narayanan Rengaswamy, et al.
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Entanglement distillation is a well-studied problem in quantum information, where one typically starts with n noisy Bell pairs and distills k Bell pairs of higher fidelity. While distilling Bell pairs is the canonical setting, it is important to study the distillation of multipartite entangled states because these can be useful for realizing distributed algorithms on quantum networks. In this paper, we study the distillation of GHZ states using quantum error correcting codes (QECCs). Using the stabilizer formalism, we begin by explaining the QECC-based Bell pair distillation protocol in arXiv:0708.3699, which relies particularly on the transpose symmetry between Alice's and Bob's qubits in Bell states. Extending this idea, we show that, given n GHZ states, performing a matrix on Alice's qubits is equivalent to performing a "stretched" version of the transpose of the matrix on the qubits of Bob and Charlie. We call this mapping to the stretched version of the matrix the GHZ-map, and show that it is an algebra homomorphism. Using this property, we show that Alice projecting her qubits onto an [[n,k]] stabilizer code implies the simultaneous projection of Bob's and Charlie's qubits onto an induced [[2n,k]] stabilizer code. Guided by this insight, we develop a GHZ distillation protocol based on local operations and classical communication that uses any stabilizer code. Inspired by stabilizer measurements on GHZ states, we also develop a new algorithm to generate logical Pauli operators of any stabilizer code and use it in the protocol. Since quantum codes with finite rate and almost linear minimum distance have recently been discovered, this paper paves the way for high-rate high-output-fidelity GHZ distillation. We provide simulation results on the 5-qubit perfect code to emphasize the importance of the placement of a certain local Clifford operation in the protocol.

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