Hand pose estimation is an important topic in computer vision with many practical applications including virtual/augmented reality (AR/VR)[22, 41] and human-computer interaction [46, 31]. A large body of work has shown robust hand pose estimation using RGB-D cameras [11, 47, 17, 50] or stereo cameras [56, 48]
that provides 3D information about hands. With the recent advance of deep learning techniques[19, 27, 25, 24, 26], researchers have begun exploring the use of monocular 2D cameras [59, 34], which are cheap and ubiquitous thanks to their use in consumer devices like smart-phones and laptops.
Despite recent success of applying deep learning in hand pose estimation from monocular 2D images, there is still a substantial quality gap when comparing with depth-based approaches. We believe that the culprit is the variability in hand appearance caused by differences in lighting, backgrounds, and skin tones or textures. The same hand pose can appear quite differently in daylight than fluorescent lighting, and both harsh shadows and cluttered backgrounds tend to confuse neural networks. To ensure the robustness of neural networks, large amount of training data is typically required in order to adequately samples all the axes of variation.
In this work, we aim to improve the robustness of hand pose estimation from monocular 2D images by finding a representation of hand pose that is independent of its appearance. We propose to train a neural network that learns to “disentangle” a hand image into two sets of features: the first captures the hand pose, while the second captures the hand’s appearance. Pose features refer to the informative factors used to reconstruct the actual hand pose (e.g. the locations of the hand joints), while the appearance feature denote the complementary “inessential” factors of the image, such as the background, lighting conditions, hand textures, . We refer to this decomposition as Factor Disentanglement.
, where the pairs share some features (e.g. object class) but vary in others (e.g. background). These pairs supervise the disentanglement process, demonstrating how different parts of the feature vector contribute to the composition of the image. While it is relatively easy to find multiple images that share the same object class, finding pairs of images with identical hand but different appearance is considerably more challenging. Instead, we propose to learn to disentangle the images using the supervision we do have: labeled poses for each training image.
To do this, we start with the following principles:
We should be able to predict the (labeled) hand pose using only the pose feature.
We should be able to reconstruct the original image using the combination of pose plus appearance features.
However, this is not sufficient, because there is nothing that ensures that the pose and appearance features are orthogonal, that is, they represent different factors of the image. The network can simply make the “appearance” feature effectively encode both pose and appearance, and reconstruct the image while ignoring the separate pose component. Therefore:
We should be able to combine the pose feature from one image with the appearance feature from another to get a novel image whose pose matches the first image and whose appearance matches the second.
Because we have no way to know a priori what this novel image should look like, we can not supervise it with an image reconstruction loss. Instead, we use cycle consistency : if we disentangle this novel image, it should decompose back into the original pose and appearance features. This will ensure that the network does not learn to encode the pose into the appearance feature. We apply these three principles during our training process shown in Fig. 2.
The proposed self-disentanglement framework is applied on a dataset of monochrome hand images. We show that learning to disentangle hand pose and appearance features greatly improves the performance of hand pose estimation module in two ways: 1. the pose estimation module can learn a better pose feature representation when the factor disentanglement is learned jointly as an auxiliary task. 2. the dataset can be augmented by generating new images with different pose-appearance combinations during the process. Both methods lead to improvement over baseline on our hand pose dataset. In addition, we also show comparable results to a factor disentanglement network trained with the supervision of paired images. Due to the challenge of capturing perfect paired data, we resort to a synthetic dataset for this comparison, where a pair of hand images are rendered using path tracing  with identical hand pose but different background, lighting, and hand textures. Although our experiments are done using monochrome images, this framework can be easily extended for the case of RGB images.
The main contribution of this paper is as follows:
A self-distanglement network to disentangle the hand pose features from its complementary appearance features in monochrome images, without paired training data of identical poses.
The proposed framework improves the robustness of supervised pose estimation to appearance variations, without use of additional data or labels.
2 Related Work
Hand Tracking: Due to the large pose space, occlusions, and appearance variation such as lighting and skin tone, hand tracking from images is a challenging problem. Methods that use multiple views [56, 38, 4] can deal with occlusions but are more difficult to set up. A large body of work [11, 47, 35, 50, 50] has demonstrated high-quality tracking use depth/RGBD cameras. While powerful, these sensors are still not largely available in consumer products. More recently, there has been work on tracking hands from monocular RGB camera [59, 34] using deep learning techniques. In this work, we will focus on monochrome cameras due to their increased sensitivity to low light, but the methods should generalize to RGB camera case as well.
, which are neural networks with an encoder (contracting part) and a decoder (expanding part). The encoder is designed to extract a feature representation of the input (image) and the decoder translates the feature back to the input (autoencoder[7, 14]) or the desired output space. This structure is widely used in image restoration [6, 30, 55], image transformation [13, 9], pose estimation  or semantic segmentation [37, 1]. In addition, it has also been utilized for unsupervised feature learning  and factor disentangling [33, 49, 15]. In our framework, this architecture is adopted for both the image reconstruction module and the hand joint localization module, while we propose a novel unsupervised training method to ensure the separation of factors generated by the encoders.
Learning Disentangled Representations. Disentangling the factors of variation is a desirable property of learned representations , which has been investigated for a long time [51, 52, 13, 15].In , an autoencoder is trained to separate a translation invariant representation from a code that is used to recover the translation information. In , the learned disentangled representations is applied to the task of emotion recognition. Mathieu combine a Variational Autoencoder (VAE) with a GAN to disentangle representations depending on what is specified (labeled in the dataset) and the remaining unspecified factors of variation .
Recently, factor disentanglement has also been used to improve visual quality of synthesized/reconstructed images and/or to improve recognition accuracy for research problems such as pose-invariant face recognition[54, 40], identity-preserving image editing [16, 21, 23], and hand/body pose estimation [29, 3]. However, these factor disentanglement methods usually either require paired data or explicit attribute supervision to encode the expected attribute. Two recent techniques, -VAE  and DIP-VAE , build on variational autoencoders (VAEs) to disentangle interpretable factors in an unsupervised way. However, they learn it by matching to an isotropic Gaussian prior, while our method learns disentanglement using a novel cycle-consistency loss.  improves the robustness of pose estimation methods by synthesizing more images from the augmented skeletons, which is achieved by obtaining more unseen skeletons instead of leveraging the unseen combinations of the specified factor (pose) and unspecified factors (background) in the existing dataset like ours. The most related work is , which proposes an disentangled VAE to learn the specified (pose) and additional (appearance) factors. However, our method explicitly makes the appearance factor orthogonal to the pose during training process, while  only guarantees that the pose factor does not contain information about the image contents.
3 Learning Self-Disentanglement
In this section, we present our self-disentanglement framework. An overview of the framework can be found in Fig. 2. Our framework encodes a monochrome hand image into two orthogonal latent features: the pose feature and the appearance feature using pose encoder and appearance encoder . Without explicit supervision on how these two features disentangle, we introduce the following consistency criteria for self supervision.
3.1 Pose Estimation Loss
To encode the pose feature, we use a model similar to the contracting-expanding structure of UNet . As shown in the top of Fig. 3, we use down-sampling layers (the pose encoder ) to encode the image into a latent pose feature . The up-sampling layers (the pose decoder ) then decode into a set of hand joint heatmaps . Each heatmap is a Gaussian centered at a single hand joint location . An L1 loss penalizes differences between the predicted heatmaps and the ground truth heatmaps :
Note that while skip connections are commonly used to preserve details in the output , we avoid these connections here, as they allow the network to bypass the latent pose feature, thus preventing proper disentanglement.
3.2 Image Reconstruction Loss
To generate the appearance feature , we use another encoder-decoder network with the same contracting-expanding structure (lower part of Fig. 3). This encoder shares the early-stage layers with the pose module as shown in Fig. 3. To ensure that the two latent factors contain the information we expect, an image reconstruction loss is introduced in the framework. The decoder network now takes both the pose feature and the appearance feature to reconstruct the original image as . Supervision is provided by a reconstruction loss: we penalize the difference between the decoded image and the original image using an L1 loss:
In addition, a GAN loss  is used to encourage the reconstructed image to be indistinguishable from the real hand images. The discriminator and generator losses are defined as follows:
where and denote the losses for discriminator and generator respectively.
One risk when using a reconstruction loss is that the network can “hide” appearance information in the encoded pose feature in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction. This is contrary to our goal that the pose feature should solely encode an abstract representation of the pose alone. To prevent this, during training, we block the gradients from the image reconstruction loss from back-propagating to the pose feature (Fig. 3); as a result, the pose encoder is not supervised by the image reconstruction loss, and thus has no incentive to encode appearance-related features.
3.3 Learning Orthogonal Factors with Mix-Reconstruction
Ideally, the extracted pose and appearance factor should be orthogonal to each other, that is, and should encode different aspects of the image. This would allow combining any arbitrary pose/appearance pair to generate a valid image. However, the autoencoder in Sec. 3.2 has no incentive to keep the appearance factor separate from the pose factor; the image reconstruction step works even if the appearance factor also encodes the pose.
Previous work on factor disentanglement [9, 33, 40, 28] uses image pairs as supervision. If we have two images that vary in appearance but have the same object category, then we could use this to help the network learn what “appearance” means. Nevertheless, in our case, we do not have such data pairs: images that have identical pose but different lighting are difficult to obtain. Hence, factor disentanglement should be done without any knowledge of the data except the hand joint locations.
As shown in Fig. 2, we appeal to a randomly sampled instance, , which has no relation to in either pose or appearance (different pose icons and background patterns denote the different pose and appearance). We can extract the pose feature and appearance feature and from the random instance . Then we concatenate and , and use the decoder to generate a novel “mix-reconstructed” image , which ideally combines the pose from and appearance from . is expected to have ’s pose and ’s appearance, but there exists no image in our training set that embodies this particular combination of pose and appearance. We cannot supervise the reconstruction of directly. Consequently, we rely on cycle consistency to provide indirect supervision.
3.4 Cycle Consistency Loss
To tackle the problem mentioned above, we further decode back to and using the pose and appearance encoder as Sec. 3.1 and 3.2. As shown in Fig. 2 (c), we re-combine the reconstructed factors and with and respectively to synthesize the original image as and . Now we build a disentangle-mix-disentangle-reconstruct cycle to generate back to the original input (denoted as the self-disentanglement), and we use the following cycle consistency losses during training:
The reconstructed pose factors and should also match the and . An additional dual feature loss is also added as an auxiliary supervision to enforce the feature-level consistency:
where and here only serve as fixed training targets, and the gradients are not back-propagated through to and .
In addition, the mix-reconstructed image is also expected to output the pose from . Therefore, as shown in Fig. 2 (d) the reconstructed pose code is decoded with the pose decoder to the hand joint heatmap , which should match the original heatmap :
3.5 End-to-end Training
The model is trained end-to-end with randomly sampled pairs and :
where denotes the sum of the corresponding losses for the pairs and .
When evaluating cycle consistency, the pose decoder and the image decoder serve as an evaluator to estimate whether the mix-reconstructed image can output the correct hand joint heatmap and can be encoded into expected features. We don’t necessarily want to train them based on the mix-reconstructed image because it may be poor in quality, especially during the early stage of training. Therefore we fix the parameters in these two decoders in Fig. 2 (c-d) (shown with dash outline). They are simply a copy of the modules in Sec. 3.1 and Sec. 3.2, but do not accumulate gradients in back-propagation. This simple strategy greatly stablilizes training.
|Dataset||Train (#frames)||Testing (#frames)|
|123,034 2||13,416 2|
4.1 Data Preparation
We collect a dataset of monochrome hand images captured by headset-mounted monochrome cameras in a variety of environments and lighting conditions. To obtain high quality ground truth labels of 3D joint locations, we rigidly attach the monochrome camera to a depth camera, then apply  on the depth image to obtain 3D key points on the hand. With careful camera calibration, we transform the 3D key points to the monochrome camera space as ground truth labels. The training images are then generated as a 64x64 crop around the hand.
In addition, we render a synthetic dataset of hand images using the same hand poses from the monochrome dataset. Each pose is rendered into a pair of images with different environment maps, lighting parameters and hand textures. This synthetic dataset offers perfectly paired data of the same pose with different appearances. Tab 1 shows statistics of the two datasets.
4.2 Implementation Details
We use an encoder-decoder architechure following UNet  without skip-connections as the base model. The encoder is shared between the pose feature and the appearance feature before the last downsampling layer. Two different decoders are used in the Hand Joint Localization branch and the Image Reconstruction branch respectively, where the image reconstruction branch decodes from both the pose feature and the appearance feature (Fig 3).
Both the encoder and the two decoders have a depth of 4. Each block in the encoder consists of repeated application of two 3x3 convolutions, each followed by a rectified linear unit (ReLU) and a 2x2 max pooling operation with stride 2 for down-sampling. The pose decoderemploys a 2x2 deconvolution layer in each block for up-sampling, while the image decoder uses nearest-neighbor upsampling followed by a 3x3 convolution instead to avoid the checkerboard artifact . Fig. 3 illustrates the detailed model structure. At training time, we initialize all parameters randomly, and use the Adam 
optimizer with a fixed learning rate 0.001. A total of 75 epochs is run with a batch size of 128.
4.3 Orthogonal Feature Space From Self-Disentanglement
We visually validate the orthogonality of the two feature spaces by reconstructing novel images using the pose feature from one image and the appearance feature from another. Fig. 4 shows a matrix of generated results on both the captured dataset and the synthetic dataset. We can successfully reconstruct the desired hand pose under different lighting and background. For instance, the hands in the first two rows of Fig. 4 (a) are lit by light source from the left, consistent in appearance with the source images. Even though the network cannot reproduce all the details in the background, it generates similar statistics. We refer readers to the supplementary video for more results.
There are still noticeable artifacts in the generated images, especially when the pose estimator does a poor job either in the appearance image (row 2 in Fig. 4(b)) or in the pose image (column 3 in Fig. 4(a)). Interestingly, because we don’t have any key points on the arm, it is encoded into the appearance feature by our network (row 6 in Fig. 4(a)).
|Paired Data |
|Paired Data |
4.4 Comparison to Supervised Disentanglement
To prove the effectiveness of our proposed self-disentanglement, we compare our method with two baselines: (1) the Auto-Encoder  with the structure shown in Sec. 3.2; (2) the factor disentanglement  using the paired data that have identical pose but different appearance. Detailed experimental results are shown in Tab. 2.
We can see that the images from the Appearance Factor row and the Autoencoder results row in Tab. 2, are nearly the same. It shows that, without supervision on orthogonality, the Auto-Encoder model encodes the entire input image into the appearance feature, and discards the pose feature in decoding. Therefore, the pose and appearance factors are not fully disentangled. Checking the results of disentanglement with paired data  and our self-disentanglement, both methods are able to combine pose feature and appearance feature from two different source images to construct a novel image with specified pose and appearance. Our model generates visually similar images to the model trained with paired data.
Furthermore, we randomly swap the hand and appearance factors of the held-out set to generate a new set of images, and then calculate the inception scores  and perform a user study on the preference of between our method and  in Tab. 3. The comparable results validate our claims.
|ID||Model||Epochs||MSE (in pixels)||Improvements|
|1||Baseline Pose Estimator||75||4.174||-|
|2||Pose Estimator + Image Reconstruction||75||3.982||4.60%|
|3||Our proposed Self-Disentanglement||75||3.923||6.02%|
|4||Our proposed Self-Disentanglement + Resume (**)||150||3.864||7.44%|
|5||(**) + No Pose Estimator Detach||150||3.756||10.02%|
|6||(**) + No Pose Estimator Detach + no Pose Detach||150||3.735||10.53%|
4.5 Improve Pose Estimation with Disentanglement
An important application of our disentanglement model is to improve the robustness of the pose estimation module. We examine how each criterion in the disentanglement process affect the pose estimator step by step.
We fit the predicted heatmap of every joint to a gaussian distribution, and use the mean value as the predicted locations of the joints. Tab.4
shows quantitative results, where the MSE denotes the mean square error of the predictions in pixels. The baseline pose estimator is trained with supervised learning (Sec3.1). When we add the image reconstruction loss (Sec 3.2, the accuracy is already improved by 4.60%. It suggests that the image reconstruction task encourages the shared base layers (Fig. 3) to extract more meaningful low level features for pose estimation. Adding the cycle consistency loss (Sec 3.4) further boosts the performance by 6.02%.
In Sec 3.5, we employe a strategy to stabilize training by disabling back-propagation to the pose feature (Pose Detach) as well as the back-propagation to the pose estimator parameters (Pose Estimator Detach). This is useful because the most reliable supervision is from the joint location labels, and we don’t want to distract the pose estimator by auxiliary tasks that are more ambiguous in the early stage. However, once we have a reasonable disentanglement network, the additional supervision from image reconstruction and cycle consistency may help the pose estimator to better differentiate a pose from its appearance. We conduct two additional experiments using warm start from Model 3 to test this hypothesis. The new baseline trains our network as described in Sec 3.5 for another 75 epochs (Model 4). The first experiment allows back-propagation to the pose feature (Model 5), and the second experiment allows back-propagation to both the pose feature and the pose estimator parameters (Model 6). Both models are trained from Model 3 for 75 epochs. While the pose estimator benefits from warm start and the additional epochs, we can observe even greater improvements in accuracy when back-propagation is enabled. These two experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of self-disentanglement in improving the robustness of pose estimation to make it more resilient to environment variations.
4.6 Image Retrieval using Disentangled Factors
We can examine the feature spaces by looking at images with similar features. For instance, if we query images with similar pose features, we will get images of similar hand poses under different environment variations. Likewise, if we query images with similar appearance features, we will get images in a similar environment but with different hand poses. Fig. 6 shows the top-20 nearest images from the monochrome dataset of the same query image in the pose space and the appearance space respectively. The query results further confirm the success of our method to disentangle the two factors.
While we believe our method successfully disentangles pose features, we can only indirectly validate the result by reconstructing novel images from random pose-appearance feature pairs using a GAN framework. The reconstruction captures the desired hand pose with consistent shading and background with the environment, but not without artifacts. The most severe issues are usually around the wrist and arm region, where the pose key points are sparse. Since key points are the only direct supervision, the model needs to differentiate hand pixels from background pixels based on the key points, and will make mistake where the connection is weak. Incorporation of pixel label masks or dense annotations as supervision to pose estimation and image reconstruction can potentially improve the image quality. Another interesting failure case is when the pose estimation makes a mistake, and the reconstruction image shows the wrongly estimated pose rather than the original input pose. It shows that while we are successful in disentanglement, there are other factors contributing to the robustness of pose estimation. In the future, we would like to investigate a more direct and quantitative measure of the effectiveness of disentanglement, and to improve the quality of image reconstruction to enrich any existing training dataset with a wide range of appearance variations.
In this paper, we present a self-disentanglement method to decompose a monochrome hand image into representative features of the hand pose and its complementary features of the image appearance. Without the supervision of paired images, we show that our method with cycle consistency principle is sufficient to ensure orthogonality of the pose feature and the appearance feature. Such flexibility makes our method applicable to any existing deep learning based pose estimation framework without requiring additional data or labels. When tested with a captured dataset of monochrome images, we demonstrate significant improvement in the robustness of the pose estimator to environment variations, comparing to a conventional supervised pose estimation baseline. Additionally, compared to a disentanglement model learned from paired training data, our model also performs similarly in terms of synthesized image quality proofing the success of self-disentanglement.
-  V. Badrinarayanan, A. Kendall, and R. Cipolla. Segnet: A deep convolutional encoder-decoder architecture for image segmentation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1511.00561, 2015.
S. Baek, K. In Kim, and T.-K. Kim.
Augmented skeleton space transfer for depth-based hand pose
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 8330–8339, 2018.
-  G. Balakrishnan, A. Zhao, A. V. Dalca, F. Durand, and J. Guttag. Synthesizing images of humans in unseen poses. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 8340–8348, 2018.
-  L. Ballan, A. Taneja, J. Gall, L. Van Gool, and M. Pollefeys. Motion capture of hands in action using discriminative salient points. In European Conference on Computer Vision, pages 640–653. Springer, 2012.
-  Y. Bengio, A. Courville, and P. Vincent. Representation learning: A review and new perspectives. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 35(8):1798–1828, 2013.
-  S. A. Bigdeli, M. Zwicker, P. Favaro, and M. Jin. Deep mean-shift priors for image restoration. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 763–772, 2017.
-  H. Bourlard and Y. Kamp. Biological cybernetics, 59(4-5):291–294, 1988.
C. Dong, C. C. Loy, K. He, and X. Tang.
Image super-resolution using deep convolutional networks.IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 38(2):295–307, 2016.
-  A. Gonzalez-Garcia, J. van de Weijer, and Y. Bengio. Image-to-image translation for cross-domain disentanglement. arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.09730, 2018.
-  I. Goodfellow, J. Pouget-Abadie, M. Mirza, B. Xu, D. Warde-Farley, S. Ozair, A. Courville, and Y. Bengio. Generative adversarial nets. In NIPS, 2014.
-  H. Hamer, K. Schindler, E. Koller-Meier, and L. Van Gool. Tracking a hand manipulating an object. In Computer Vision, 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference On, pages 1475–1482. IEEE, 2009.
-  I. Higgins, L. Matthey, A. Pal, C. Burgess, X. Glorot, M. Botvinick, S. Mohamed, and A. Lerchner. beta-vae: Learning basic visual concepts with a constrained variational framework. 2017.
-  G. E. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, and S. D. Wang. Transforming auto-encoders. In International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, pages 44–51. Springer, 2011.
-  G. E. Hinton and R. R. Salakhutdinov. Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks. science, 313(5786):504–507, 2006.
-  Q. Hu, A. Szabó, T. Portenier, M. Zwicker, and P. Favaro. Disentangling factors of variation by mixing them. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.07410, 2017.
-  R. Huang, S. Zhang, T. Li, R. He, et al. Beyond face rotation: Global and local perception gan for photorealistic and identity preserving frontal view synthesis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04086, 2017.
-  C. Keskin, F. Kıraç, Y. E. Kara, and L. Akarun. Real time hand pose estimation using depth sensors. In Consumer depth cameras for computer vision, pages 119–137. Springer, 2013.
-  D. Kingma and J. Ba. Adam: A method for stochastic optimization. ICLR, 2015.
-  A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton. Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In NIPS, pages 1097–1105, 2012.
-  A. Kumar, P. Sattigeri, and A. Balakrishnan. Variational inference of disentangled latent concepts from unlabeled observations. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.00848, 2017.
-  G. Lample, N. Zeghidour, N. Usunier, A. Bordes, L. Denoyer, et al. Fader networks: Manipulating images by sliding attributes. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 5967–5976, 2017.
-  T. Lee and T. Hollerer. Multithreaded hybrid feature tracking for markerless augmented reality. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 15(3):355–368, 2009.
-  M. Li, W. Zuo, and D. Zhang. Deep identity-aware transfer of facial attributes. arXiv preprint arXiv:1610.05586, 2016.
-  Y. Li, N. Duan, B. Zhou, X. Chu, W. Ouyang, X. Wang, and M. Zhou. Visual question generation as dual task of visual question answering. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 6116–6124, 2018.
-  Y. Li, W. Ouyang, X. Wang, and X. Tang. Vip-cnn: Visual phrase guided convolutional neural network. CVPR, 2017.
-  Y. Li, W. Ouyang, B. Zhou, J. Shi, C. Zhang, and X. Wang. Factorizable net: An efficient subgraph-based framework for scene graph generation. In The European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), September 2018.
-  Y. Li, W. Ouyang, B. Zhou, K. Wang, and X. Wang. Scene graph generation from objects, phrases and region captions. In ICCV, 2017.
-  Y. Liu, F. Wei, J. Shao, L. Sheng, J. Yan, and X. Wang. Exploring disentangled feature representation beyond face identification. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 2080–2089, 2018.
-  L. Ma, Q. Sun, S. Georgoulis, L. Van Gool, B. Schiele, and M. Fritz. Disentangled person image generation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 99–108, 2018.
-  X. Mao, C. Shen, and Y.-B. Yang. Image restoration using very deep convolutional encoder-decoder networks with symmetric skip connections. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pages 2802–2810, 2016.
-  A. Markussen, M. R. Jakobsen, and K. Hornbæk. Vulture: a mid-air word-gesture keyboard. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems, pages 1073–1082. ACM, 2014.
J. Masci, U. Meier, D. Cireşan, and J. Schmidhuber.
Stacked convolutional auto-encoders for hierarchical feature extraction.In International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, pages 52–59. Springer, 2011.
-  M. F. Mathieu, J. Zhao, A. Ramesh, P. Sprechmann, and Y. LeCun. Disentangling factors of variation in deep representation using adversarial training. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 5040–5048, 2016.
-  F. Mueller, F. Bernard, O. Sotnychenko, D. Mehta, S. Sridhar, D. Casas, and C. Theobalt. Ganerated hands for real-time 3d hand tracking from monocular rgb. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 49–59, 2018.
-  F. Mueller, D. Mehta, O. Sotnychenko, S. Sridhar, D. Casas, and C. Theobalt. Real-time hand tracking under occlusion from an egocentric rgb-d sensor. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), volume 10, 2017.
-  A. Newell, K. Yang, and J. Deng. Stacked hourglass networks for human pose estimation. In European Conference on Computer Vision, pages 483–499. Springer, 2016.
-  H. Noh, S. Hong, and B. Han. Learning deconvolution network for semantic segmentation. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computer vision, pages 1520–1528, 2015.
-  I. Oikonomidis, N. Kyriazis, and A. A. Argyros. Full dof tracking of a hand interacting with an object by modeling occlusions and physical constraints. 2011.
-  D. Pathak, P. Krahenbuhl, J. Donahue, T. Darrell, and A. A. Efros. Context encoders: Feature learning by inpainting. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 2536–2544, 2016.
-  X. Peng, X. Yu, K. Sohn, D. N. Metaxas, and M. Chandraker. Reconstruction-based disentanglement for pose-invariant face recognition. intervals, 20:12, 2017.
-  T. Piumsomboon, A. Clark, M. Billinghurst, and A. Cockburn. User-defined gestures for augmented reality. In IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pages 282–299. Springer, 2013.
-  T. J. Purcell, I. Buck, W. R. Mark, and P. Hanrahan. Ray tracing on programmable graphics hardware. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Courses, page 268. ACM, 2005.
-  S. Rifai, Y. Bengio, A. Courville, P. Vincent, and M. Mirza. Disentangling factors of variation for facial expression recognition. In Computer Vision–ECCV 2012, pages 808–822. Springer, 2012.
-  O. Ronneberger, P. Fischer, and T. Brox. U-net: Convolutional networks for biomedical image segmentation. In International Conference on Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention, pages 234–241. Springer, 2015.
-  T. Salimans, I. Goodfellow, W. Zaremba, V. Cheung, A. Radford, and X. Chen. Improved techniques for training gans. In NIPS, 2016.
-  S. Sridhar, A. M. Feit, C. Theobalt, and A. Oulasvirta. Investigating the dexterity of multi-finger input for mid-air text entry. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 3643–3652. ACM, 2015.
-  S. Sridhar, F. Mueller, M. Zollhöfer, D. Casas, A. Oulasvirta, and C. Theobalt. Real-time joint tracking of a hand manipulating an object from rgb-d input. In European Conference on Computer Vision, pages 294–310. Springer, 2016.
-  S. Sridhar, A. Oulasvirta, and C. Theobalt. Interactive markerless articulated hand motion tracking using rgb and depth data. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computer vision, pages 2456–2463, 2013.
-  A. Szabó, Q. Hu, T. Portenier, M. Zwicker, and P. Favaro. Challenges in disentangling independent factors of variation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.02245, 2017.
-  A. Tagliasacchi, M. Schröder, A. Tkach, S. Bouaziz, M. Botsch, and M. Pauly. Robust articulated-icp for real-time hand tracking. Computer Graphics Forum, 34(5):101–114, 2015.
-  J. B. Tenenbaum and W. T. Freeman. Separating style and content. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pages 662–668, 1997.
-  J. B. Tenenbaum and W. T. Freeman. Separating style and content with bilinear models. Neural computation, 12(6):1247–1283, 2000.
-  J. Tompson, M. Stein, Y. Lecun, and K. Perlin. Real-time continuous pose recovery of human hands using convolutional networks. ACM Transactions on Graphics (ToG), 33(5):169, 2014.
-  L. Tran, X. Yin, and X. Liu. Disentangled representation learning gan for pose-invariant face recognition. In CVPR, volume 3, page 7, 2017.
-  D. Ulyanov, A. Vedaldi, and V. Lempitsky. Deep image prior. 2018.
-  R. Wang, S. Paris, and J. Popović. 6d hands: markerless hand-tracking for computer aided design. In Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, pages 549–558. ACM, 2011.
-  L. Yang and A. Yao. Disentangling latent hands for image synthesis and pose estimation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.01002, 2018.
J.-Y. Zhu, T. Park, P. Isola, and A. A. Efros.
Unpaired image-to-image translation using cycle-consistent adversarial networks.ICCV, 2017.
-  C. Zimmermann and T. Brox. Learning to estimate 3d hand pose from single rgb images. In International Conference on Computer Vision, volume 1, page 3, 2017.