Destructiveness of Lexicographic Parsimony Pressure and Alleviation by a Concatenation Crossover in Genetic Programming

05/25/2018 ∙ by Timo Kötzing, et al. ∙ 0

For theoretical analyses there are two specifics distinguishing GP from many other areas of evolutionary computation. First, the variable size representations, in particular yielding a possible bloat (i.e. the growth of individuals with redundant parts). Second, the role and realization of crossover, which is particularly central in GP due to the tree-based representation. Whereas some theoretical work on GP has studied the effects of bloat, crossover had a surprisingly little share in this work. We analyze a simple crossover operator in combination with local search, where a preference for small solutions minimizes bloat (lexicographic parsimony pressure); the resulting algorithm is denoted Concatenation Crossover GP. For this purpose three variants of the well-studied MAJORITY test function with large plateaus are considered. We show that the Concatenation Crossover GP can efficiently optimize these test functions, while local search cannot be efficient for all three variants independent of employing bloat control.



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