Delving into Inter-Image Invariance for Unsupervised Visual Representations

08/26/2020 ∙ by Jiahao Xie, et al. ∙ 0

Contrastive learning has recently shown immense potential in unsupervised visual representation learning. Existing studies in this track mainly focus on intra-image invariance learning. The learning typically uses rich intra-image transformations to construct positive pairs and then maximizes agreement using a contrastive loss. The merits of inter-image invariance, conversely, remain much less explored. One major obstacle to exploit inter-image invariance is that it is unclear how to reliably construct inter-image positive pairs, and further derive effective supervision from them since there are no pair annotations available. In this work, we present a rigorous and comprehensive study on inter-image invariance learning from three main constituting components: pseudo-label maintenance, sampling strategy, and decision boundary design. Through carefully-designed comparisons and analysis, we propose a unified framework that supports the integration of unsupervised intra- and inter-image invariance learning. With all the obtained recipes, our final model, namely InterCLR, achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks. Code and models will be available at



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