DeepRite: Deep Recurrent Inverse TreatmEnt Weighting for Adjusting Time-varying Confounding in Modern Longitudinal Observational Data

by   Yanbo Xu, et al.

Counterfactual prediction is about predicting outcome of the unobserved situation from the data. For example, given patient is on drug A, what would be the outcome if she switch to drug B. Most of existing works focus on modeling counterfactual outcome based on static data. However, many applications have time-varying confounding effects such as multiple treatments over time. How to model such time-varying effects from longitudinal observational data? How to model complex high-dimensional dependency in the data? To address these challenges, we propose Deep Recurrent Inverse TreatmEnt weighting (DeepRite) by incorporating recurrent neural networks into two-phase adjustments for the existence of time-varying confounding in modern longitudinal data. In phase I cohort reweighting we fit one network for emitting time dependent inverse probabilities of treatment, use them to generate a pseudo balanced cohort. In phase II outcome progression, we input the adjusted data to the subsequent predictive network for making counterfactual predictions. We evaluate DeepRite on both synthetic data and a real data collected from sepsis patients in the intensive care units. DeepRite is shown to recover the ground truth from synthetic data, and estimate unbiased treatment effects from real data that can be better aligned with the standard guidelines for management of sepsis thanks to its applicability to create balanced cohorts.



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