Deep learning approaches, e.g. 3D CNN [Ji et al.(2013)Ji, Xu, Yang, and Yu], two-stream CNN [Simoyan and Zisserman(2014)], C3D [Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri], TDD [Wang et al.(2015)Wang, Qiao, and Tang] and TSN [Wang et al.(2016)Wang, Xiong, Wang, Qiao, Lin, and Tang], have shown state-of-the-art performances in video action recognition. Nevertheless, deep learning is limited when dealing with the real-world action recognition problem. One major reason is that deep CNNs tend to suffer from the over-fitting problem [Szegedy et al.(2015)Szegedy, Liu, Jia, Sermanet, Reed, Anguelov, Erhan, Vanhoucke, and Rabinovich], when the labeled action ground truth is inadequate due to its expensive labor burden; and there exist significant intra-class variations in training data including the change of human poses, viewpoints and backgrounds. Unfortunately, most of the deep learning methods aim at distinguishing the inter-class variability, but often ignore the intra-class distribution [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou].
To alleviate the over-fitting problem, regularization techniques [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou] and prior knowledge (e.g. 2D topological structure of input data [Le et al.(2011)Le, Zou, Yeung, and Ng]) are used for image classification task. Nonlinear structures, e.g. Riemanian manifold, have been successfully incorporated as constraints to balance the learned model [Zhang et al.(2015)Zhang, Perina, Murino, and Bue, Wen et al.(2016)Wen, Zhang, Li, and Qiao]. However, the problem about how to transfer manifold constraints between input data and learned features remains not being well solved.
In this paper, we propose a spatio-temporal manifold 111The spatio-temporal structure is calculated based on a group of manifold sample sets. network (STMN) approach for action recognition, to alleviate the above problems from the perspective of deep learning regularization. Fig. 1
shows the basic idea, where the spatio manifold models the non-linearity of action samples while the temporal manifold considers the dependence structure of action frames. In general, this paper aims to answer “how the spatio-temporal manifold can be embedded into CNN to improve the action recognition performance". Specifically, our assumption is that the intrinsic data structure, i.e. manifold structure, can be preserved in the deep learning pipeline, being transferred from the input video sequences into the feature space. With such assumption, CNN is exploited to extract feature maps with respect to the overlapped clips of each video. Meanwhile, a new manifold constraint model is intuitively obtained and embedded into the loss function of CNN to reduce the structure variations in the high-dimensional data. We then solve the resulting constrained optimization problem based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers and Backward Propagation (ADMM-BP) algorithm. In addition, our theoretical analysis shows we can seamlessly fuse the manifold structure constraint with the back propagation procedure through manifold embedding in the feature layer (the last layer of CNN). As a result, we can easily implement our optimization algorithm by additionally using a projection operation to introduce the manifold constraint.The main contributions of this paper include: (1) The spatio-temporal manifold is introduced into the loss function of a deep learning model as a regularization term for action recognition. The resulting STMN reduces the intra-class variations and alleviates the over-fitting problem. (2) A new optimization algorithm ADMM-BP is developed to transfer the manifold structure between the input samples and deep features.
2 Related Work
Early methods represent human actions by hand-crafted features [Dollár et al.(2005)Dollár, Rabaud, Cottrell, and Belongie, Laptev(2005), Willems et al.(2008)Willems, Tuytelaars, and Van Gool]. Laptevs et al. [Laptev(2005)] proposed space time interest points (STIPs) by extending Harris corner detectors into Harris-3D. SIFT-3D [Scovanner et al.(2007)Scovanner, Ali, and Shah] and HOG-3D [Kläser et al.(2008)Kläser, Marszalek, and Schmid] descriptors, respectively evolved from SIFT and HOG, were also proposed for action recognition. Wang et al. [Wang and Schmid(2013)] proposed an improved dense trajectories (iDT) method, which is the state-of-the-art hand-crafted feature. However, it becomes intractable on large-scale dataset due to its heavy computation cost.
Recently, deep learning approaches [Huang et al.(2012)Huang, Lee, and Learnedmiller, Jain et al.(2014)Jain, Tompson, Andriluka, Taylor, and Bregler] were proposed for human action recognition. Other related works for extracting spatio-temporal features using deep learning include Stacked ISA [Le et al.(2011)Le, Zou, Yeung, and Ng], Gated Restricted Boltzmann [Taylor et al.(2010)Taylor, Fergus, LeCun, and Bregler] and extended 3D CNN [Ji et al.(2013)Ji, Xu, Yang, and Yu]. Karpathy et al. [Karpathy et al.(2014)Karpathy, Toderici, Shetty, Leung, Sukthankar, and Fei-Fei] trained deep structures on Sports-1M dataset. Simonyan et al. [Simoyan and Zisserman(2014)] designed two-stream CNN containing spatio and temporal nets for capturing motion information. Wang et al. [Wang et al.(2015)Wang, Qiao, and Tang] conducted temporal trajectory-constrained pooling (TDD) to aggregate deep convolutional features as a new video representation and achieved state-of-the-art results.
Despite of the good performance achieved by deep CNN methods, they are usually adapted from image-based deep learning approaches, ignoring the time consistency of action video sequences. Tran et al. [Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri] performed 3D convolutions and 3D pooling to extract a generic video representation by exploiting the temporal information in the deep architecture. Their work called C3D method is conceptually simple and easy to train and use. However, the manifold structure is not explicitly exploited in all existing deep learning approaches.
Our proposed approach builds up the C3D method, and it goes beyond C3D by introducing a new regularization term to exploit the manifold structure during the training process, in order to reduce intra-class variations and alleviate the over-fitting problem. Rather than simply combine the manifold and CNN, we theoretically obtain the updating formula of our CNN model by preserving the structure of the data from the input space to the feature space. Although using the manifold constraint, our work differs from the latest manifold work [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou] in the following aspects. First, our method is obtained from a theoretical investigation under the framework of ADMM, while [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou] is empirical. Second, we are inspired from the fact that deep learning is so powerful that it can well discriminate the inter-class samples, and thus only intra-class manifold was considered to tackle the unstructured problem existed in the deep features (in Fig. 1). Differently, the method in [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou] is a little redundant on considering intra-class and inter-class information based on the complicated manifold regularization terms. Our study actually reveals that the inter-class information was already well addressed in deep learning model and there is no need to discuss it again. We target at action recognition, which is not a direct application in [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou].
3 Manifold Constrained Network
We present how the spatio-temporal manifold constraint can be introduced into CNN, i.e. C3D [Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri], for action recognition. Fig. 3 shows the framework of STMN, in which the intra-class manifold structure is embedded as a regularization term into the loss function, which eventually leads to a new ADMM-BP learning algorithm to train the CNN model.
We summarizes important variables, wehre is the CNN feature map, is the cloning of , which formulates a manifold.
denotes the weight vector for the last fully connected (FC) layer, andrepresents convolution filters for other layers.
3.1 Problem formulation
Let be a set of training videos, where denotes the th video with divided into clips (see Fig. 3). is the input of C3D, and the output feature map is denoted as . Given the convolution operator
and max pooling operator, the network performs convolutions in the spatio-temporal domain with a number of filter weights and bias . The function in the convolution layer is . In the last FC layer, the loss function for the -layers network is:
where denotes the weight vector in the last FC layer, and all biases are omitted. In Eq. (1), the softmax loss term is
where denotes the deep feature for , belonging to the th class. denotes the th column of weights in the last FC layer, is the number of classes. To simplify the notation, we denote the output feature map for video as , which is able to describe the nonlinear dependency of all features after layers for video clips. As a result, the deep features are denoted as , and refers to the learned feature at the th iteration (see Fig. 3).
The conventional objective function in Eq. (1) overlooks a property that the action video sequences usually formulate a specific manifold , which represents the nonlinear dependency of input videos. For example, in Fig. 1 the intra-class of video with separated clips lies on a spatio-temporal manifold , which is supported by the evidence that video sequence with continuously moving and/or acting objects often lies on specific manifolds [Zhang et al.(2015)Zhang, Perina, Murino, and Bue]. To take advantage of the property that the structure of the data can actually contribute to better solutions for lots of existing problems [Lu et al.(2015)Lu, Wang, Deng, Moulin, and Zhou], we deploy a variable cloning technique with to explicitly add manifold constraint into the optimization objective Eq. (1). We then have a new problem:
(P1) is more reasonable since the intrinsic structure is considered. However, it is unsolvable because is for the last FC layer of CNN and is not directly related to the input .
In the deep learning approach with error propagation from the top layer, it is more favorable to impose the manifold constraint on the deep layer features. This is also inspired from the idea of manifold on the structure for preserving in different spaces, i.e. the high-dimensional and the low-dimensional spaces. Similarly, the manifold structure of in the input space is assumed to be preserved in the feature of CNN in order to reduce variation in the higher-dimensional feature space (Fig. 1). That is to say, an alternative manifold constraint is obtained as , and evidently is more related to CNN training. To use to solve the problem (P1), we perform variable replacement, i.e. , alternatively formulate as a manifold, and achieve a new problem (P2),
It is obvious that the objective shown in problem (P2) is learnable, because is the convolution result based on the learned filter ( and ) and is directly related to .
3.2 ADMM-BP solution (P2)
Based on the augmented lagrangian multiplier (ALM) method, we have a new objective for the problem (P2) as
where denotes the Lagrange multiplier vector, is the corresponding regularization factor. Optimizing the above objective involves complex neural network training problem. Eq. (3) is solved based on ADMM and backward propagation algorithm, named ADMM-BP, which integrates CNN training with manifold embedding in an unified framework.
Specifically, we solve each variable in each sub-problem. ADMM-BP is described from the th iteration, and is first solved based on . Next , , and are solved step by step. Finally is obtained, which is then used to calculate similar to that in the th iteration. We have
which is described in the next section. And then
For the FC layer, we use the gradient descend method,
and we update the parameters for convolutional layers
by stochastic gradient descent in the backward propagation as
where is the learning rate, is the iterative number, and
Now we have an updated CNN model to calculate the feature map , which is then deployed to calculate via Eq. (4) (replacing by ).
3.3 Manifold embedding
In the th iteration, we have 222We have without manifold constraint., where is the projection matrix related to the manifold . This is the key part of the proposed algorithm where the constraint manifold arises. Replacing equals replacing the projection . This is the modularity which we alluded previously. To calculate , we exploit the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) method [Roweis and Saul(2000)] in order to find a structure-preserving solution for our problem based on the embedding technique. By considering intrinsic manifold structure of the input data, the algorithm can stop on a manifold, , in the th iteration as
where is a diagonal matrix defined as . are the neighborhoods of the sample and are the corresponding weight vector calculated in LLE.
Algorithm. The ADMM-BP algorithm is summarized in Alg. 1, where the key step defined by Eq. (12) is respectively solved in Sec. 3.2 and Sec. 3.3. Although the convergence of the ADMM optimization problem with multiple variables remains an open problem, our learning procedures experimentally never diverge, because new adding variables related to manifold constraint are solved following the similar pipeline of back propagation. Based on the learned STMN model, we obtain a chain of CNN features denoted as
where is the number of videos, and is the STMN feature for the video with clips.
4 Experimental Setting and Results
Two benchmark datasets are used to validate our approach for action recognition.
HMDB51 [Kuehne et al.(2011)Kuehne, Jhuang, Garrote, Poggio, and Serre] consists of realistic videos from action categories with each category containing at least 100 videos. We follow the evaluation scheme in [Kuehne et al.(2011)Kuehne, Jhuang, Garrote, Poggio, and Serre] to report the average accuracy over three different training/testing splits.
UCF101 [Soomro et al.(2012)Soomro, Zamir, and Shah] contains action classes with each class having at least videos. The whole dataset contains videos, which are divided into groups for each action class. We follow the evaluation scheme of the THUMOS13 Challenge [Jiang et al.(2013)Jiang, Liu, Roshan Zamir, Laptev, Piccardi, Shah, and Sukthankar] to use the three training/testing splits for performance evaluation. Example frames from both datasets are shown in Fig. 3.
We initially use UCF101 dataset to train the STMN network, which is further deployed for feature extraction on all datasets. We use the C3D[Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri], which is a 3D version of CNN designed to extract temporal features to obtain a chain of CNN features for video recognition. In C3D, each video is divided into 16-frame clips with 8-frame overlapped between two consecutive clips as the input of the network. The frame resolution is set to , and input sizes of C3D are (channelsframesheightwidth). The C3D network uses 5 convolution layers, 5 pooling layer, 2 FC layers and a softmax loss layer to predict action labels. The filter numbers from the first to fifth convolutional layer respectively are 64, 128, 256, 256 and 256. The sizes of convolution filter kernels and the pooling layers respectively are and . The output feature size of each FC layer is 4096. The proposed STMN is trained using mini-batch size of 50 examples with initial learning rate . The resulting network is further used to extract the 4096-dim features for each video clip. All clips are finally concatenated as the features.
Classification model and baseline. We train and test STMN features () using the multi-class linear SVM. More specifically, STMN was trained on the split1 of UCF101, and the learned network is then used to extract features on both HMDB51 and UCF101. In the testing stage, we followed the same protocol as used in TDD [Wang et al.(2015)Wang, Qiao, and Tang], TSN [Wang et al.(2016)Wang, Xiong, Wang, Qiao, Lin, and Tang] and C3D [Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri]. Both the state-of-the-art handcrafted and deep learning methods including DT+BoVW [Wang et al.(2013)Wang, Klaser, Schmid, and Liu], DT+MVSV [Cai et al.(2014)Cai, Wang, Peng, and Qiao], iDT+FV [Wang and Schmid(2013)], DeepNet [Karpathy et al.(2014)Karpathy, Toderici, Shetty, Leung, Sukthankar, and Fei-Fei], Two-stream CNN [Simoyan and Zisserman(2014)], TDD [Wang et al.(2015)Wang, Qiao, and Tang], TSN [Wang et al.(2016)Wang, Xiong, Wang, Qiao, Lin, and Tang] and C3D [Tran et al.(2015)Tran, Bourdev, Fergus, Torresani, and Paluri], are employed for an extensive comparison. C3D is used as the baseline.
4.1 Results and analysis
We first study the average recognition accuracies of our STMN when using different number of neighborhoods in LLE in Table. 2. Due to limited number of training videos in each class, we learned the STMN on the split1 in UCF101 using neighbor samples and extracted features. STMN achieves the best accuracies of and on HMDB51 and UCF101 respectively, when . Note that the value of has to be smaller than the batch size. In our experiment, we can only evaluate the performance of our STMN by setting up to 20 due to memory limitation of GPUs.
Fig. 4 shows the embedding feature visualizations on HMDB51 and UCF101 datasets. In Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 4(c), the C3D features of twenty difficult classes on HMDB51 and UCF101 are visualized by t-SNE [van der Maaten et al.(2009)van der Maaten, Postma, and van den Herik], while the STMN features are illustrated in Fig. 4(b) and Fig. 4(d), respectively. Clearly, the STMN feature is more discriminative than the C3D feature, especially the STMN feature in Fig. 4(d) can be better discriminated than the C3D feature in Fig. 4
(b). As another verification, the quantitative evaluation is performed based on intra-class mean and variance in the next section.
Model effect: 1) Convergence:
We employed the parallel computing strategy to utilize GPUs during the training process, which is implemented with our modified version of Caffe. Our STMN is trained on the UCF101 database, which takes about 2 days with two K80 GPUs and Xeon(R) E5-2620 V2 CPU. We plotted the training loss of two algorithms in Fig.6. It is clear that our STMN (the red line) converges much faster than C3D. 2) Intra-class variation: As shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 7, STMN can exploit the manifold structure to better eliminate randomness of samples in the feature space. Especially as shown in Fig. 7, the quantitative intra-class means and variances333The statistics are computed using pairwise Euclidean distance. of our STMN features are much smaller than those of C3D, e.g. the total mean on the UCF dataset has decreased from to . We can also observe that (STMN mean) versus (C3D mean) and (STMN variance) versus (C3D variance) for the specific action BabyCrawling. 3) Over-fitting: The manifold regularization can mitigate the over-fitting problem especially when there are not enough training samples in practical applications. In Fig. 6, we conducted a training experiment using 70 percent of training and testing data from the UCF101 dataset (split2), which shows that C3D overfits the training data at the th iteration, while our STMN overfits the training data at the th iteration.
Comparisons. We follow the same evaluation scheme to compare our STMN with several representative action recognition methods. The results are shown in Tab. 2. STMN also achieves much better results than TDD, which combines the hand-crafted features and deep learning features. Our STMN also outperforms TSN [Wang et al.(2016)Wang, Xiong, Wang, Qiao, Lin, and Tang] on the HMDB51 dataset and achieves comparable results on the UCF101 dataset. It is worth mentioning that TSN is designed based on three modalities of features (RGB, Optical Flow and Warped Flow) through the two-stream deep CNN learning framework, while we only use the RGB features in our STMN and it does not introduce any preprocessing steps used such as extraction of optical flow and warped flow as in TSN and traditional hand-crafted features based approaches.
In Fig. 3, we take four classes including drawsword, pullup, BabyCrawling, and GolfSwing as examples for more detailed analysis. The recognition accuracies of our STMN for these four actions are , , and , and the improvements over C3D are , , and , respectively. In Fig. 8, we plot the input data, C3D features, and our STMN features. It can be observed that better manifold structure can be preserved after using our STMN method.
We have proposed a spatio-temporal convolutional manifold network (STMN) to incorporate the manifold structure as a new constraint when extracting features using deep learning based approaches. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrated that our STMN method achieves competitive results for human action results. In future work, we will investigate how to combine our STMN method with the existing deep learning approaches such as two-stream CNN [Simoyan and Zisserman(2014)] and TSN [Wang et al.(2016)Wang, Xiong, Wang, Qiao, Lin, and Tang] to further improve the recognition performance.
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