Deep Recursive Embedding for High-Dimensional Data

04/12/2021 ∙ by Zixia Zhou, et al. ∙ 13

t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) is a well-established visualization method for complex high-dimensional data. However, the original t-SNE method is nonparametric, stochastic, and often cannot well prevserve the global structure of data as it emphasizes local neighborhood. With t-SNE as a reference, we propose to combine the deep neural network (DNN) with the mathematical-grounded embedding rules for high-dimensional data embedding. We first introduce a deep embedding network (DEN) framework, which can learn a parametric mapping from high-dimensional space to low-dimensional embedding. DEN has a flexible architecture that can accommodate different input data (vector, image, or tensor) and loss functions. To improve the embedding performance, a recursive training strategy is proposed to make use of the latent representations extracted by DEN. Finally, we propose a two-stage loss function combining the advantages of two popular embedding methods, namely, t-SNE and uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP), for optimal visualization effect. We name the proposed method Deep Recursive Embedding (DRE), which optimizes DEN with a recursive training strategy and two-stage losse. Our experiments demonstrated the excellent performance of the proposed DRE method on high-dimensional data embedding, across a variety of public databases. Remarkably, our comparative results suggested that our proposed DRE could lead to improved global structure preservation.

READ FULL TEXT
POST COMMENT

Comments

There are no comments yet.

Authors

page 3

page 5

page 7

page 8

page 9

page 10

page 11

This week in AI

Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.