Deep machine learning-assisted multiphoton microscopy to reduce light exposure and expedite imaging

by   Stephen McAleer, et al.

Two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF) allows imaging of tissue up to about one millimeter in thickness. Typically, reducing fluorescence excitation exposure reduces the quality of the image. However, using deep learning super resolution techniques, these low-resolution images can be converted to high-resolution images. This work explores improving human tissue imaging by applying deep learning to maximize image quality while reducing fluorescence excitation exposure. We analyze two methods: a method based on U-Net, and a patch-based regression method. Both methods are evaluated on a skin dataset and an eye dataset. The eye dataset includes 1200 paired high power and low power images of retinal organoids. The skin dataset contains multiple frames of each sample of human skin. High-resolution images were formed by averaging 70 frames for each sample and low-resolution images were formed by averaging the first 7 and 15 frames for each sample. The skin dataset includes 550 images for each of the resolution levels. We track two measures of performance for the two methods: mean squared error (MSE) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). For the eye dataset, the patches method achieves an average MSE of 27,611 compared to 146,855 for the U-Net method, and an average SSIM of 0.636 compared to 0.607 for the U-Net method. For the skin dataset, the patches method achieves an average MSE of 3.768 compared to 4.032 for the U-Net method, and an average SSIM of 0.824 compared to 0.783 for the U-Net method. Despite better performance on image quality, the patches method is worse than the U-Net method when comparing the speed of prediction, taking 303 seconds to predict one image compared to less than one second for the U-Net method.


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