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Deep Learning for Segmentation-based Hepatic Steatosis Detection on Open Data: A Multicenter International Validation Study

10/27/2022
by   Zhongyi Zhang, et al.
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Despite high global prevalence of hepatic steatosis, no automated diagnostics demonstrated generalizability in detecting steatosis on multiple heterogeneous populations. In this retrospective study, we externally validated a fully automated artificial intelligence (AI) system to detect hepatic steatosis. 1,014 non-contrast enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scans were collected from eight distinct datasets: LIDC-IDRI, NSCLC-Lung1, RIDER, VESSEL12, RICORD-1A, RICORD-1B, COVID-19-Italy, and COVID-19-China. This three-step AI workflow consists of the following: (i) 3D liver segmentation - a 3D U-Net deep learning model developed for liver segmentation and applied externally without retraining. (ii) liver attenuation measurements by three automatic methods: AI on regions of interest (AI-ROI), AI-3D, and AI-2D; (iii) hepatic steatosis detection. The deep-learning segmentation achieved a mean dice coefficient of 0.957. AI-ROI attenuation measurements showed no significant differences compared to expert measurements (P > 0.05), but AI-3D and AI-2D were significantly different from the expert (P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of steatosis classification for AI-ROI, AI-3D, and AI-2D are 0.921 (95 CI: 0.883 - 0.959), 0.939 (95 0.938) respectively. If adopted for universal detection, this deep learning system could potentially allow early non-invasive, non-pharmacological preventative interventions for hepatic steatosis. 1,014 expert-annotated liver segmentations of CT images can be downloaded here: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1-g_zJeAaZXYXGqL1OeF6pUjr6KB0igJX.

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