Deep learning for laboratory earthquake prediction and autoregressive forecasting of fault zone stress

by   Laura Laurenti, et al.

Earthquake forecasting and prediction have long and in some cases sordid histories but recent work has rekindled interest based on advances in early warning, hazard assessment for induced seismicity and successful prediction of laboratory earthquakes. In the lab, frictional stick-slip events provide an analog for earthquakes and the seismic cycle. Labquakes are ideal targets for machine learning (ML) because they can be produced in long sequences under controlled conditions. Recent works show that ML can predict several aspects of labquakes using fault zone acoustic emissions. Here, we generalize these results and explore deep learning (DL) methods for labquake prediction and autoregressive (AR) forecasting. DL improves existing ML methods of labquake prediction. AR methods allow forecasting at future horizons via iterative predictions. We demonstrate that DL models based on Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Networks predict labquakes under several conditions, and that fault zone stress can be predicted with fidelity, confirming that acoustic energy is a fingerprint of fault zone stress. We predict also time to start of failure (TTsF) and time to the end of Failure (TTeF) for labquakes. Interestingly, TTeF is successfully predicted in all seismic cycles, while the TTsF prediction varies with the amount of preseismic fault creep. We report AR methods to forecast the evolution of fault stress using three sequence modeling frameworks: LSTM, Temporal Convolution Network and Transformer Network. AR forecasting is distinct from existing predictive models, which predict only a target variable at a specific time. The results for forecasting beyond a single seismic cycle are limited but encouraging. Our ML/DL models outperform the state-of-the-art and our autoregressive model represents a novel framework that could enhance current methods of earthquake forecasting.


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