Decodable quantum LDPC codes beyond the √(n) distance barrier using high dimensional expanders

04/16/2020
by   Shai Evra, et al.
0

Constructing quantum LDPC codes with a minimum distance that grows faster than a square root of the length has been a major challenge of the field. With this challenge in mind, we investigate constructions that come from high-dimensional expanders, in particular Ramanujan complexes. These naturally give rise to very unbalanced quantum error correcting codes that have a large X-distance but a much smaller Z-distance. However, together with a classical expander LDPC code and a tensoring method that generalises a construction of Hastings and also the Tillich-Zemor construction of quantum codes, we obtain quantum LDPC codes whose minimum distance exceeds the square root of the code length and whose dimension comes close to a square root of the code length. When the ingredient is a 3-dimensional Ramanujan complex, we show that its 2-systole behaves like a square of the log of the complex size, which results in an overall quantum code of minimum distance n^1/2log n, and sets a new record for quantum LDPC codes. When we use a 2-dimensional Ramanujan complex, or the 2-skeleton of a 3-dimensional Ramanujan complex, we obtain a quantum LDPC code of minimum distance n^1/2log^1/2n. We then exploit the expansion properties of the complex to devise the first polynomial time algorithm that decodes above the square root barrier for quantum LDPC codes.

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