1 Introduction
Machine learning has enjoyed much success in recent years for both academic and commercial scenarios. Two learning approaches have gained particular attention: (i) random forests [1, 4, 5, 22], as used e.g. in Microsoft Kinect [15]; and (ii) deep neural networks (DNNs) [13, 20], as used for speech recognition [31] and image classification [9], among other applications. Decision trees are characterized by a routed behavior: conditioned on some learned routing function, the data is sent either to one child or another. This conditional computation
means that at test time only a small fraction of all the nodes are visited, thus achieving high efficiency. Convolutional neural networks repeatedly transform their input through several (learned) nonlinear transformations. Typically, at each layer all units need to perform computation. CNNs achieve stateoftheart accuracy in many tasks, but decision trees have the potential to be more efficient. This paper investigates the connections between these two popular models, highlighting differences and similarities in theory and practice.
Related work. Decision forests were introduced in [1, 4]
as efficient models for classification and regression. Forests were extended to density estimation, manifold learning and semisupervised learning in
[5]. The decision jungle variant [22] replaces trees with DAGs (directed acyclical graphs) to reduce memory consumption.Convolutional networks were introduced for the task of digit recognition in [6]. More recently they have been applied with great success to the task of image classification over 1,000 classes [2, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 20, 23, 27, 32].
In general, decision trees and neural networks are perceived to be very different models. However, the work in [21, 30]
demonstrates how any decision tree or DAG can be represented as a twolayer perceptron with a special pattern of sparsity in the weight matrices. Some recent papers have addressed the issue of mixing properties of trees and convolutional networks together. For example, the tworouted CNN architecture in
[13] is a stump (a tree with only two branches). GoogLeNet [27] is another example of a (imbalanced) treelike CNN architecture.The work in [26, 28] combines multiple “expert” CNNs into one, manually designed DAG architecture. Each component CNN is trained on a specific task (e.g. detecting an object part), using a partspecific loss. In contrast, here we investigate training a single, treeshaped CNN model by minimizing one global training loss. In our model the various branches are not explicitly trained to recognize parts (though they may do so if this minimizes the overall loss).
The work in [33] is a cascade [29] of CNN classifiers, each trained at a different level of recognition difficulty. Their model does not consider treebased architectures. Finally, the work in [11] achieves state of the art classification accuracy by replacing the fullyconnected layers of a CNN with a forest. This model is at least as expensive as the original CNN since the convolutional layers (where most of the computation is) are not split into different branches.
Contributions. The contributions of this paper are as follows: i) We show how DAGbased CNN architectures (namely conditional networks) with a rich hierarchical structure (e.g. high number of branches, more balanced trees) produce classification accuracy which is at par with state of the art, but with much lower compute and memory requirements. ii) We demonstrate how conditional networks are still differentiable despite the presence of explicit data routing functions. iii) We show how conditional networks can be used to fuse the output of CNN ensembles in a data driven way, yielding higher accuracy for fixed compute. Validation is run on the task of imagelevel classification, on both the CIFAR and Imagenet datasets.
2 Structured Sparsity and Data Routing
The seminal work in [13]
demonstrated how introducing rectified linear unit activations (ReLUs) allows
deep CNNs to be trained effectively. Given a scalar input, its ReLU activation is
. Thus, this type of nonlinearity switches off a large number of feature responses within a CNN. ReLU activations induce a datadependent sparsity; but this sparsity does not tend to have much structure in it. Enforcing a special type of structured sparsity is at the basis of the efficiency gain attained by conditional networks. We illustrate this concept with a toy example.The output of the exemplar multilayer perceptron (MLP) of Fig. 1a is computed as . Given a trained MLP we can look at the average correlation of activations between pairs of units in two successive layers, over all training data. For example, the matrix (Fig. 1b) shows the joint correlations of activations in layers 1 and 2 in a perceptron trained on the Imagenet classification task.^{1}^{1}1The correlation matrix is not the same as the weight matrix . Here we use the final two layers of the deep CNN model of [23] with a reduced number of features (250) and classes (350) to aid visualization.
Thanks to the ReLUs, the correlation matrix has many zerovalued elements (in white in Fig. 1b), and these are distributed in an unstructured way. Reordering the rows and columns of reveals an underlying, noisy blockdiagonal pattern (Fig. 1c). This operation corresponds to finding groups of layer1 features which are highly active for certain subsets of classes (indexed in layer2). Thus, the darker blocks in Fig. 1c correspond to three superclasses (sets of ‘related’ classes). Zeroing out the offdiagonal elements (Fig. 1e) corresponds to removing connections between corresponding unit pairs. This yields the sparse architecture in Fig. 1d, where selected subsets of the layer1 features are sent (after transformation) to the corresponding subsets of layer2 units; thus giving rise to data routing.
We have shown how imposing a blockdiagonal pattern of sparsity to the joint activation correlation in a neural network corresponds to equipping the network with a treelike, routed architecture. Next section will formalize this intuition further and show the benefits of sparse architectures.
3 Conditional Networks: Trees or Nets?
This section introduces the conditional networks model, in comparison to trees and CNNs, and discusses their efficiency and training. For clarity, we first introduce a compact graphical notation for representating both trees and CNNs.
Representing CNNs. Figure 2a shows the conventional way to represent an MLP, with its units (circles) connected via edges (for weights). Our new notation is shown in Fig. 2b, where the symbol denotes the popular nonlinear transformation between two consecutive layers and . The linear projection matrix is denoted ‘’, and ‘’ indicates a nonlinear function (e.g. a sigmoid or ReLU). In the case of CNNs the function could also incorporate e.g
. maxpooling and dropout. Deep CNNs are long concatenations of the structure in Fig.
2b.Representing trees and DAGs. The same graphical language can also represent trees and DAGs (Fig. 3). Usually, in a tree the data is moved from one node to another untransformed.^{2}^{2}2This is in contrast to representation learning approaches which estimate optimal data transformation processes. Exceptions are [16, 17].
In our notation this is achieved via the identity matrix
(i.e. ). Additionally, Selecting a subset of featuresfrom a longer vector
is achieved as , with nonsquare matrix with only one element per row equal to 1, and 0 everywhere else. Identity and selection transforms are special instances of linear projections.A key operator of trees which is not present in CNNs is data routing. Routers send the incoming data to a selected subbranch and enable conditional computation. Routers (red nodes in Fig. 3) are represented here as perceptrons, though other choices are possible. In general, a router outputs realvalued weights, which may be used to select a single best route, multiple routes (multiway routing), or send the data fractionally to all children (soft routing).
A conditional network exhibits both data routing and nonlinear data transformation within a highly branched architecture (Fig. 4).
3.1 Computational Efficiency
Efficiency through explicit data routing. Split nodes can have explicit routers where data is conditionally sent to the children according to the output of a routing function (e.g. node 2 in Fig. 4), or have implicit routers where the data is unconditionally but selectively sent to the children using selection matrices (e.g. node 1). If the routing is explicit and hard (like in trees), then successive operations will be applied to ever smaller subsets of incoming data, with the associated compute savings. Next we show how implicit conditional networks can also yield efficiency.
Efficiency of implicit routed networks. Figures 5 compares a standard CNN with a 2routed architecture. The total numbers of filters at each layer is fixed for both to , and . The number of multiplications necessary in the first convolution is , with the size of the feature map and the kernel size (for simplicity here we ignore maxpooling operations). This is the same for both architectures. However, due to routing, the depth of the second set of filters is different between the two architectures. Therefore, for the conventional CNN the cost of the second convolution is , while for the branched architecture the cost is , i.e. half the cost of the standard CNN. The increased efficiency is due only to the fact that shallower kernels are convolved with shallower feature maps. Simultaneous processing of parallel routes may yield additional time savings.^{3}^{3}3
Feature not yet implemented in Caffe
[28].3.2 Backpropagation Training
Implicitlyrouted conditional networks can be trained with the standard backpropagation algorithm [13, 27]. The selection functions become extra parameters to optimize over, and their gradients can be derived straightforwardly. Now we show that explicitlyrouted networks can also be trained using backpropagation. To do so we need to compute partial derivatives with respect to the router’s parameters (all other differentiation operations are as in conventional CNNs). We illustrate this using the small network in Fig. 6. Here subscripts index layers and superscripts index routes (instead, in Fig. 4 the subscripts indexed the input and output nodes). The training loss to be minimized is
(1) 
with denoting the parameters of the network, and the groundtruth assignments to the output units. We define this energy for a single training data point, though the extension to a full dataset is a trivial outer summation. The network’s forward mapping is
(2) 
with the output of the router. In general: i) the routing weights are continuous, , and ii) multiple routes can be “on” at the same time. is a matrix whose th row is . The update rule is with
indexing iterations. We compute the partial derivatives through the chain rule as follows:
(3) 
with , and the number of routes. Equation (3) shows the influence of the soft routing weights on the backpropagated gradients, for each route. Thus, explicit routers can be trained as part of the overall backpropagation procedure. Since trees and DAGs are special instances of conditional networks, now we have a recipe for training them via backpropagation (c.f. [11, 19, 25]).
In summary, conditional networks may be thought of as: i) Decision trees/DAGs which have been enriched with (learned) data transformation operations, or as ii) CNNs with rich, DAGshaped architectures and trainable data routing functions. Next, we show efficiency advantages of such branched models with comparative experiments.
4 Experiments and Comparisons
Conditional networks generalize decision trees, DAGs and CNNs, and thus could be used in all tasks where those are successful. Here we compare those models with one another on the popular task of imagelevel classification. We explore the effect of different “branched” architectures on a joint measure of: i) classification accuracy, ii) testtime compute cost and iii) model size.
4.1 Conditional Sparsification of a Perceptron
We begin with a toy experiment, designed to illustrate potential advandages of using explicit routes within a neural network. We take a perceptron (the last layer of “VGG11” [23]) and train it on the 1,000 Imagenet classes, with no scale or relighting augmentation [10]. Then we turn the perceptron into a small tree, with routes and an additional, compact perceptron as a router (see fig. 7a). The router and the projection matrices are trained to minimize the overall classification loss (Sec. 3.2).
Interpolating between trees and CNNs. Given a test image we apply the convolutional layers until the beginning of the tree. Then we apply the router, and its
outputs are softmax normalized and treated as probabilities for deciding which route/s to send the image to. We can send the image only to the highest probability route only (as done in trees) or we could send it to multiple routes,
e.g. the most probable ones. For we reproduce the behaviour of a tree. This corresponds to the leftmost point in the curves in fig. 7b (lowest cost and higher error). Setting corresponds to sending the image to all routes. The latter reproduces the same behaviour as the CNN, with nearly the same cost (lowest error and highest compute cost point in the curves). Different values of correspond to different points along the errorcost curves.Dynamic accuracyefficiency tradeoff. The ability to select the desired accuracyefficiency operating point at runtime allows e.g. better battery management in mobile applications. In contrast, a CNN corresponds to a single point in the accuracyefficiency space (see the black point in fig. 7b). The pronounced sublinear behaviour of the curves in fig. 7b suggests that we can increase the efficiency considerably with little accuracy reduction (in the figure a 4fold efficiency increase yields an increase in error of less than ).
Why care about the amount of computation? Modern parallel architectures (such as GPUs) yield high classification accuracy in little time. But parallelism is not the only way of increasing efficiency. Here we focus on reducing the total amount of computations while maintaining high accuracy. Computation affects power consumption, which is of huge practical importance in mobile applications (to increase battery life on a smartphone) as well as in cloud services (the biggest costs in data centres are due to their cooling). Next we extend conditional processing also to the expensive convolutional layers of a deep CNN.
4.2 Comparing Various Architectures on Imagenet
Here we validate the use of conditional networks for image classification in the ILSVRC2012 dataset [18]. The dataset consists of 1.2M training images for 1000 classes, and 50K validation images. We base our experiments on the VGG network [23] on which the current best models are also based [9]. Specifically, we focus on the VGG11 model as it is deep (11 layers) and relatively memory efficient (trains with Caffe [10] on a single Nvidia K40 GPU).
Global maxpooling. We found that using global maxpooling, after the last convolutional layer is effective in reducing the number of parameters while maintaining the same accuracy. We trained a new network (‘VGG11GMP’) with such pooling, and achieved lower top5 error than the baseline VGG11 network (13.3% vs. 13.8%), with a decrease in the number of parameters of over 72%.
Designing an efficient conditional architecture. Then we designed the conditional network in Fig. 8 by starting with the unrouted VGG11GMP and splitting the convolutional layers (the most computationally expensive layers) into a DAGlike, routed architecture. The hypothesis is that each filter should only need to be applied to a small number of channels in the input feature map.
Data routing is implemented via filter groups [13]. Thus, at the th convolutional level (with ) the filters of VGG11GMP are divided into groups. Each group depends only on the results of 128 previous filters. The feature maps of the last convolutional layer are concatenated together, and globally maxpooled before the singlerouted, fullyconnected layers, which remain the same as those in VGG11GMP.
Training. We trained the architecture in Fig. 8 from scratch, with the same parameters as in [23], except for using the initialization of [9], and a learning schedule of , where and are the initial learning rate, learning rate at iteration , and weight decay, respectively [3]
. When the validation accuracy levelled out, the learning rate was decreased by a factor 10, twice. Our architecture took twice as many epochs to train than VGG11, but thanks to higher efficiency it took roughly the same time.
Results: accuracy vs. compute vs. size. In order to compare different network architectures as fairly as possible, here we did not use any training augmentation aside from that supported by Caffe (mirroring and random crops). Similarly, we report testtime accuracy based only on centrecropped images, without potentially expensive data oversampling. This reduces the overall accuracy (w.r.t. to state of the art), but constitutes a fairer test bed for teasing out the effects of different architectures. Applying the same oversampling to all networks produced a similar accuracy improvement in all models, without changing their ranking.
Figure 9 shows top5 error as a function of testtime compute cost and model size, for various architectures. Compute cost is measured as the number of multiplyaccumulate operations. We chose this measure of efficiency because it is directly related to the theoretical complexity on the testing (runtime) algorithm, and it is machine/implementation independent. Later we will also show how in our parallel implementation this measure of efficiency correlates well with measured timings on both CPU and GPU. Model size is defined here as the total number of parameters (network weights) and it relates to memory efficiency. Larger model sizes tend to yield overfitting (for fixed accuracy). Architectures closest to the axes origin are both more accurate and more efficient.
The conditional network of Fig. 8 corresponds to the bright green circle in Fig. 9. It achieves a top5 error of 13.8%, identical to that of the VGG11 network (yellow diamond) it is based upon. However, our conditional network requires less than half the compute (45%), and almost onefifth (21%) of the parameters. Our conditional architecture is the second closest to the origin after GoogLeNet [27] (in purple). Both [27] and [13] obtain efficiency by sending data to different branches of the network. Although they do not use “highly branched” tree structures they can still be thought as special instances of (implicit) conditional networks. GoogLeNet achieves the best results in our joint threeway metric, probably thanks to their use of: i) multiple intermediate training losses, ii) learnt lowdimensional embeddings, and iii) better tuning of the architecture to the specific image dataset. Finally, the best accuracy is achieved by [9], but even their most efficient model uses 1.9E+10 flops, and thus falls outside the plot.
Do fewer operations correspond to faster execution? Figure 10 reports a layerwise comparison between the predicted testtime compute cost (measured as number of multiplyaccumulate operations in the model) and the actual measured timings (both on CPU and GPU) for the network architecture in Fig. 8. There is a strong correlation between the number of floatingpoint operations and the actual measured times. In the GPU case, the correlation is a slightly less strong, due to data moving overheads. This confirms that, indeed, fewer operations do correspond to faster execution, by roughly the same ratio. As discussed in Section 3.1 this extra speed (compared to conventional CNNs) comes from the fact that in branched architectures successive layers need to run convolutions with smaller shorter kernels, on ever smaller feature maps. All architectures tested in our experiments are implemented in the same Caffe framework and enjoy the same two levels of parallelism: i) parallel matrix multiplications (thanks to BLAS^{4}^{4}4http://www.netlib.org/blas/), and ii) data parallelism, thanks to the use of minibatches. Although highlybranched conditional networks could in theory benefit from model parallelism (computing different branches on different GPUs, simultaneously), this feature is not yet implemented in Caffe [28].
4.3 Comparing Various Architectures on CIFAR
We further validate our hybrid model on the task of classifying images in the CIFAR10 [12] dataset. The dataset contains 60K images of 10 classes, typically divided into 50K training images and 10K test images. We take the state of the art Network in Network (NiN) model as a reference [14], and we build a conditional version of it. This time the optimal conditional architecture (in Fig. 11) is constructed automatically, by using Bayesian search [24] on a parametrized family of architectures.
Designing a family of conditional networks. The NiN model has a large number (192) of filters in the first convolutional layer, representing a sizable amount of the overall compute.^{5}^{5}5Most Imagenet networks typically use conv1 filters. We build a variant (‘NiN64’) that prepends a layer of 64 filters to the NiN model. While this variant is more complex than NiN, when routed (as described later) it allows us to split the larger layers into many routes and increase the efficiency. By changing the number of routes at each level of the NiN64 model (from conv2) we can generate a whole family of possible conditional architectures.
Learning the optimal network architecture. Next we search this parametrized space of routed architectures by using Bayesian optimization [24]. In the optimization we maximized the sizenormalized accuracy with respect to the parameters , where is the number of nodes at layer in the conditional network. Fig. 11 shows the resulting architecture. It turns out to be a DAG with 10 layers.
For a fair comparison, we use Bayesian optimization on the NiN architecture too. We reduce the complexity of the unrouted NiN64 network by learning a reduction in the number of perlayer filters. i.e. we maximize over , where is the number of filters in layer . All networks were trained with the same parameters as [14], except for using the initialization of [9], and a learning schedule of , where and are the initial learning rate, learning rate at iteration , and weight decay, respectively [3]. Training was run for 400 epochs (max), or until the validation accuracy had not changed in 10K iterations. We split the original training set into 40K training images and 10K validation images. The remaining 10K images are used for testing.
Results: accuracy vs. compute vs. size. Fig. 12 shows test errors with respect to testtime cost and model size for multiple architectrues. Diamonds denote unrouted networks and circles denote conditional networks. The original NiN is shown in red, and samples of unrouted, filterreduced versions explored during the Bayesian optimization are shown in pink. A sample of 300 conditional variants are shown as grey circles. The green circle denotes one such conditional architecture close to the origin of the 3D space . Most of the conditional networks proposed by the optimization are distributed near a 3D surface with either low error, low size, low compute cost, or all of them. The conditional samples are in average closer to the origin than the unrouted counterparts. The accuracy of the best conditional network is almost identical to that of the NiN model, but it is about 5 times faster and 6 times smaller.
4.4 Conditional Ensembles of CNNs
A key difference between CNNs and conditional networks is that the latter may include (trainable) data routers. Here we use an explicitlyrouted architecture to create an ensemble of CNNs where the data traverses only selected, component CNNs (and not necessarily all of them), thus saving computation.
As an example, the branched network in Fig. 13 is applied to the ILSVRC2012 image classification task. The network has routes, each of which is itself a deep CNN. Here, we use GoogLeNet [27] as the basis of each component route, although other architectures may be used. Generalizing to is straightforward. The routes have different compute cost (denoted by differentsized rectangles), arising from differing degrees of testtime oversampling. We use no oversampling for the first route and 10X oversampling for the second route.
The router determines which image should be sent to which route (or both). The router is trained together with the rest of the network via backpropagation (Section 3.2) to predict the accuracy of each route for each image. The router is itself a deep CNN, based on CNN1; This allows computation reuse for extra efficiency. At test time, a (dynamic) trade off can be made between predicted accuracy and computational cost.
Figure 14 shows the resulting errorcost curve. All costs, including the cost of applying the router are taken into consideration here. Given our trained conditional network, we use dynamic, multiway data routing (Section 4.1) to generate a curve in the errorcompute space. Each point on the curve shows the top5 error on the validation set at a given compute cost, which is an amortized average over the validation set. The dashed line corresponds to the trivial error vs. compute tradeoff that could be made by selecting one or other base network at random, with a probability chosen so as to achieve a required average compute cost. The fact that the green curve lies significantly below this straight line confirms the much improved tradeoff achieved by the conditional network. In the operating point indicated by the green circle we achieve nearly the same accuracy as the oversampled GoogLeNet with less than half its compute cost. A conventional CNN ensemble would incur a higher cost since all routes are used for all images.
5 Discussion and Conclusion
This paper has investigated similarities and differences between decision trees/forests and convolutional networks. This has led us to introduce a hybrid model (namely conditional network) which can be thought both as: i) trees which have been augmented with representation learning capabilities, and ii) CNNs which have been augmented with explicit data routers and a rich, branched architecture.
Experiments on image classification have shown that highly branched architectures yield improved accuracyefficiency tradeoff as compared to trees or CNNs. The desired accuracyefficiency ratio can be selected at run time, without the need to train a new network. Finally, we have shown how explicit routers can improve the efficiency of ensembles
of CNNs, without loss of accuracy. We hope these findings will help pave the way to a more systematic exploration of efficient architectures for deep learning at scale.
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