De-biasing Distantly Supervised Named Entity Recognition via Causal Intervention

by   Wenkai Zhang, et al.

Distant supervision tackles the data bottleneck in NER by automatically generating training instances via dictionary matching. Unfortunately, the learning of DS-NER is severely dictionary-biased, which suffers from spurious correlations and therefore undermines the effectiveness and the robustness of the learned models. In this paper, we fundamentally explain the dictionary bias via a Structural Causal Model (SCM), categorize the bias into intra-dictionary and inter-dictionary biases, and identify their causes. Based on the SCM, we learn de-biased DS-NER via causal interventions. For intra-dictionary bias, we conduct backdoor adjustment to remove the spurious correlations introduced by the dictionary confounder. For inter-dictionary bias, we propose a causal invariance regularizer which will make DS-NER models more robust to the perturbation of dictionaries. Experiments on four datasets and three DS-NER models show that our method can significantly improve the performance of DS-NER.



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