DDoS-UNet: Incorporating temporal information using Dynamic Dual-channel UNet for enhancing super-resolution of dynamic MRI

by   Soumick Chatterjee, et al.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high spatial resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast without using harmful ionising radiation. Dynamic MRI is an essential tool for interventions to visualise movements or changes of the target organ. However, such MRI acquisition with high temporal resolution suffers from limited spatial resolution - also known as the spatio-temporal trade-off of dynamic MRI. Several approaches, including deep learning based super-resolution approaches, have been proposed to mitigate this trade-off. Nevertheless, such an approach typically aims to super-resolve each time-point separately, treating them as individual volumes. This research addresses the problem by creating a deep learning model which attempts to learn both spatial and temporal relationships. A modified 3D UNet model, DDoS-UNet, is proposed - which takes the low-resolution volume of the current time-point along with a prior image volume. Initially, the network is supplied with a static high-resolution planning scan as the prior image along with the low-resolution input to super-resolve the first time-point. Then it continues step-wise by using the super-resolved time-points as the prior image while super-resolving the subsequent time-points. The model performance was tested with 3D dynamic data that was undersampled to different in-plane levels. The proposed network achieved an average SSIM value of 0.951±0.017 while reconstructing the lowest resolution data (i.e. only 4% of the k-space acquired) - which could result in a theoretical acceleration factor of 25. The proposed approach can be used to reduce the required scan-time while achieving high spatial resolution.


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