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Data-driven decomposition of brain dynamics with principal component analysis in different types of head impacts

by   Xianghao Zhan, et al.
Stanford University

Strain and strain rate are effective traumatic brain injury predictors. Kinematics-based models estimating these metrics suffer from significant different distributions of both kinematics and the injury metrics across head impact types. To address this, previous studies focus on the kinematics but not the injury metrics. We have previously shown the kinematic features vary largely across head impact types, resulting in different patterns of brain deformation. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of brain deformation and applies principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the representative patterns of injury metrics (maximum principal strain (MPS), MPS rate (MPSR) and MPSXMPSR) in four impact types (simulation, football, mixed martial arts and car crashes). We apply PCA to decompose the patterns of the injury metrics for all impacts in each impact type, and investigate the distributions among brain regions using the first principal component (PC1). Furthermore, we developed a deep learning head model (DLHM) to predict PC1 and then inverse-transform to predict for all brain elements. PC1 explained >80 Based on PC1 coefficients, the corpus callosum and midbrain exhibit high variance on all datasets. We found MPSXMPSR the most sensitive metric on which the top 5 higher variance among the severe impacts. Finally, the DLHM reached mean absolute errors of <0.018 for MPS, <3.7 (1/s) for MPSR and <1.1 (1/s) for MPSXMPSR, much smaller than the injury thresholds. The brain injury metric in a dataset can be decomposed into mean components and PC1 with high explained variance. The brain dynamics decomposition enables better interpretation of the patterns in brain injury metrics and the sensitivity of brain injury metrics across impact types. The decomposition also reduces the dimensionality of DLHM.


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