Data-Augmented Counterfactual Learning for Bundle Recommendation

by   Shixuan Zhu, et al.

Bundle Recommendation (BR) aims at recommending bundled items on online content or e-commerce platform, such as song lists on a music platform or book lists on a reading website. Several graph based models have achieved state-of-the-art performance on BR task. But their performance is still sub-optimal, since the data sparsity problem tends to be more severe in real bundle recommendation scenarios, which limits graph-based models from more sufficient learning. In this paper, we propose a novel graph learning paradigm called Counterfactual Learning for Bundle Recommendation (CLBR) to mitigate the impact of data sparsity problem and improve bundle recommendation. Our paradigm consists of two main parts: counterfactual data augmentation and counterfactual constraint. The main idea of our paradigm lies in answering the counterfactual questions: "What would a user interact with if his/her interaction history changes?" "What would a user interact with if the bundle-item affiliation relations change?" In counterfactual data augmentation, we design a heuristic sampler to generate counterfactual graph views for graph-based models, which has better noise controlling than the stochastic sampler. We further propose counterfactual loss to constrain model learning for mitigating the effects of residual noise in augmented data and achieving more sufficient model optimization. Further theoretical analysis demonstrates the rationality of our design. Extensive experiments of BR models applied with our paradigm on two real-world datasets are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the paradigm


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