CSformer: Bridging Convolution and Transformer for Compressive Sensing

by   Dongjie Ye, et al.

Convolution neural networks (CNNs) have succeeded in compressive image sensing. However, due to the inductive bias of locality and weight sharing, the convolution operations demonstrate the intrinsic limitations in modeling the long-range dependency. Transformer, designed initially as a sequence-to-sequence model, excels at capturing global contexts due to the self-attention-based architectures even though it may be equipped with limited localization abilities. This paper proposes CSformer, a hybrid framework that integrates the advantages of leveraging both detailed spatial information from CNN and the global context provided by transformer for enhanced representation learning. The proposed approach is an end-to-end compressive image sensing method, composed of adaptive sampling and recovery. In the sampling module, images are measured block-by-block by the learned sampling matrix. In the reconstruction stage, the measurement is projected into dual stems. One is the CNN stem for modeling the neighborhood relationships by convolution, and the other is the transformer stem for adopting global self-attention mechanism. The dual branches structure is concurrent, and the local features and global representations are fused under different resolutions to maximize the complementary of features. Furthermore, we explore a progressive strategy and window-based transformer block to reduce the parameter and computational complexity. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the dedicated transformer-based architecture for compressive sensing, which achieves superior performance compared to state-of-the-art methods on different datasets.


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