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Cryptanalysis of Three Quantum Money Schemes

by   Andriyan Bilyk, et al.

We investigate the security assumptions behind three public-key quantum money schemes. Aaronson and Christiano proposed a scheme based on hidden subspaces of the vector space 𝔽_2^n in 2012. It was conjectured by Pena et al in 2015 that the hard problem underlying the scheme can be solved in quasi-polynomial time. We confirm this conjecture by giving a polynomial time quantum algorithm for the underlying problem. Our algorithm is based on computing the Zariski tangent space of a random point in the hidden subspace. Zhandry proposed a scheme based on multivariate hash functions in 2017. We give a polynomial time quantum algorithm for cloning a money state with high probability. Our algorithm uses the verification circuit of the scheme to produce a banknote from a given serial number. Kane proposed a scheme based on modular forms in 2018. The underlying hard problem in Kane's scheme is cloning a quantum state that represents an eigenvector of a set of Hecke operators. We give a polynomial time quantum reduction from this hard problem to a linear algebra problem. The latter problem is much easier to understand, and we hope that our reduction opens new avenues to future cryptanalyses of this scheme.


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