Morphologically rich languages pose significant challenges for Natural Language Processing (NLP) due to data-sparseness caused by large vocabularies. Intermediate processing is often required to address the limitations of only using surface forms, especially for small datasets. Common morphological processing tasks include segmentation [Creutz and Lagus2007, Snyder and Barzilay2008], paradigm learning [Durrett and DeNero2013, Ahlberg et al.2015] and morphological tagging [Müller and Schuetze2015]. In this paper we focus on the latter.
Parts-of-speech (POS) tagging is the most common form of syntactic annotation. However, the granularity of POS varies across languages and annotation-schemas, and tagsets have often been extended to include tags for morphologically-marked properties such as number, case or degree. To enable cross-lingual learning, a small set of universal (coarse-grained) POS tags have been proposed [Petrov et al.2012]. For morphological processing this can be complemented with a set of attribute-feature values that makes the annotation more fine-grained [Zeman2008, Sylak-Glassman et al.2015b].
Tagging text with morphologically-enriched labels has been shown to benefit downstream tasks such as parsing [Tsarfaty et al.2010] and semantic role labelling [Hajič et al.2009]. In generation tasks such as machine translation these tags can help to generate the right form of a word and to model agreement [Toutanova et al.2008]. Morphological information can also benefit automatic speech recognition for low-resource languages [Besacier et al.2014].
However, annotating sufficient data to learn accurate morphological taggers is expensive and relies on linguistic expertise, and is therefore currently only feasible for the world’s most widely-used languages. In this paper we are interested in learning morphological taggers without the availability of supervised data. A successful paradigm for learning without direct supervision is to make use of word-aligned parallel text, with a resource-rich language on one side and a resource-poor language on the other side [Yarowsky et al.2001, Fossum and Abney2005, Das and Petrov2011, Täckström et al.2013].
In this paper we extend these methods, that have mostly been proposed for universal POS-taggers, to learn weakly-supervised morphological taggers. Our approach is based on projecting token and type constraints across parallel text, learning a tagger in a weakly-supervised manner from the projected constraints [Täckström et al.2013]. We propose an embedding-based model trained with the Wsabie algorithm [Weston et al.2011], and compare this approach against a baseline HMM model.
We evaluate the projected tags for a set of languages for which morphological tags are available in the Universal Dependency corpora. To show the feasibility of our approach, and to compare the performance of different models, we use English as source language. Then we perform an evaluation on all language pairs in the set of target languages which shows that the best performance is obtained when projecting between genealogically related languages.
As an extrinsic evaluation of our approach, we show that NLP models can benefit from using these induced tags even if they are not as accurate as tags produced by supervised models, by evaluating the effect of features obtained from tags predicted by the induced morphological taggers in dependency parsing.
2 Universal Morphological Tags
In order to do cross-lingual learning we require a common morphological tagset. To evaluate these models we require datasets in multiple languages which have been annotated with such a consistent schema. The treebanks annotated in the Universal Dependencies (UD) project [de Marneffe et al.2014] are suitable for this purpose.
All the data is annotated with universal POS tags, a set of 17 tags111This extends, but is not fully consistent with, the set of 12 tags proposed by PetrovDM12.. We use UD v1.2 [Nivre et al.2015], which contain 25 languages annotated with morphological attributes (called features). In addition to POS, there are 17 universal attributes, which each takes one of a set of values when annotated. The morphological tag of a token denotes the union of its morphological attribute-value pairs, including its POS.
Although the schema is consistent across languages, there are language-specific phenomena and considerations that result in some mismatches for a given pair of languages. One source of this is that the UD treebanks were mostly constructed by fully or semi-automatic conversion of existing treebanks which had used different annotation schemes. Furthermore, not all the attributes and values appear in all languages (e.g. additional cases in morphologically-rich languages such as Finnish), and there are still a number of language-specific tags not in the universal schema. Finally, in some instances properties that are not realised in the surface word form are absent from the annotation (e.g. in English the person and number of verbs are only annotated for third-person singular, as there are no distinct morphological forms for their other values).
An example of the morphological annotation employed is given in Figure 1. Note that the annotations for aligned word-pairs are not fully consistent. Some attributes appear only in the English treebank (e.g. Voice), while others appear only in the Dutch treebank (e.g. Aspect, Subcat).
3 Tag Projection across Bitext
Our approach to train morphological taggers is based on the paradigm of projecting token and type constraints as proposed by TackstromDPMN13. The training data consist of parallel text with the resource-rich language on the source-side and the low-resource language on the target side. The source-side text is tagged with a supervised morphological tagger. For every target-side sentence, the type and token constraints are used to construct a set of permitted tags for each token in the sentence. These constraints will then be used to train morphological taggers.
3.1 Type and token constraints
To extract constraints from the parallel text, we first obtain bidirectional word alignments. To ensure high quality alignments, alignment pairs with a confidence below a fixed threshold are removed. The motivation for using only high-confidence alignments is that incorrect alignments will hurt the performance of the model, while it is easier to use more parallel text to obtain a sufficient number of alignments for training.
The first class of constraints that we extract from the parallel text is type constraints. For each word type, we construct a distribution over tags for the word by accumulating counts of the morphological tags of source-side tokens that are aligned to instances of the word type. The set of tags with probability above some thresholdis taken as the tag dictionary entry for that word type. To construct the training examples, each token whose type occurs in the tag dictionary is restricted to the set of tags in the dictionary entry. For tokens for which the dictionary entry is empty, all the tags are included in the set of permitted tags (this happens when the tag distribution is too flat and all the probabilities are below the threshold). In principle, type constraints can also be obtained from an external dictionary, but in this paper we assume we do not have such a resource.
The second class of constraints places restrictions on word tokens. Every target token is constrained to the tag of its aligned source token, while unaligned tokens can take any tag.
Token constraints are combined with type constraints as proposed by TackstromDPMN13: If a token is unaligned, its type constraints are used. If the token is aligned, and there is no dictionary entry for the token type, the token constraint is used. If there is a dictionary entry for the token type, and the token constraint tag is in the dictionary, the token constraint is used. If the token constraint tag is not in the dictionary entry, the type constraints are used.
4 Learning from Projected Tags
Next we propose models to learn a morphological tagger from cross-lingually projected constraints.
4.1 Related work
HMMs have previously been used for weakly-supervised learning from token or type constraints[Das and Petrov2011, Li et al.2012, Täckström et al.2013]. HMMs are generative models, and in this setting the words in the target sentence form the observed sequence and the morphological tags the hidden sequence. The projected constraints are used as partially observed training data for the hidden sequence.
TackstromDPMN13 proposed a discriminative CRF model that relies on incorporating two sets of constraints, of which one is a subset of the other. GanchevD13 used a similar CRF model, but instead of using the projected tags as hard constraints, they were employed as soft constraints with posterior regularization.
The model of WisniewskiPGY14 makes greedy predictions with a history-based model, that includes previously predicted tags in the sequence, during training and testing. The model is trained with a variant of the perceptron algorithm that allows a set of positive labels. When an incorrect prediction is made during training, the parameters are updated in the direction of all the positive labels.
4.2 HMM model
As a baseline model we use an HMM where the transition and emission distributions are parameterized by log-linear models (a feature-HMM). Training is performed with L-BFGS rather than with the EM algorithm. This parameterization was proposed by BergKirkpatrickBDK10 and applied to cross-lingual POS induction by DasP11 and TackstromDPMN13.
Let be the target sentence and the sequence of tags for the sentence. The marginal probability of a sequence during training is
where is the set of tag sequences allowed by the type and token constraints. The probability of all other tag sequences are assumed to be .
The features in our model are similar to those used by TackstromDPMN13, including features based on word and tag identity, suffixes up to length , punctuation and word clusters. Word clusters are obtained by clustering frequent words into 256 clusters with the Exchange algorithm [Uszkoreit and Brants2008], using the data and methodology detailed in TackstromMU12.
4.3 Wsabie model
We propose a discriminative model based on Wsabie [Weston et al.2011]
, a shallow neural network that learns to optimize precision at the top of a ranked list of labels. In our application, the goal is to learn to rank the set of tags allowed by the projected constraints in the training data above all other tags. In contrast to the HMM, which performs inference over the entire sequence, Wsabie makes the predictions at each token independently, based on a large context-size. Therefore, Wsabie inference is linear in the number of tags, while for an HMM it is quadratic, making the Wsabie model much faster during training and decoding.
Wsabie maps the input features and output labels into a low-dimensional joint space. The input vectorfor a word
consists of the concatenation of word embeddings and sparse features extracted fromand the surrounding context. A mapping
maps into , with matrix of parameters. The output tag is mapped into the same space by
where is a matrix of output tag embeddings and selects the column embedding of tag . The model score for tag given input token with feature vector is the dot product
where the tags are ranked by the magnitude of . The norms of the columns of and are constrained, which acts as a regularizer.
The loss function is a margin-based hinge loss based on the rank of a tag given by
. The rank is estimated by sampling an incorrect tag uniformly with replacement until the sampled tag violates the margin with a correct tag. Training is performed with stochastic gradient descent by performing a gradient step against the violating tag.
The word embedding features for the Wsabie models consist of -dimensional word vectors of the words on either side of a token and of the token itself. The embeddings are trained with word2vec [Mikolov et al.2013] on large corpora of newswire text.
Sparse features are based on prefixes and suffixes up to length as well as word cluster features for a window size around the token, using the clusters described in the previous section.
We evaluate our model in two settings. The first evaluation measures the accuracy of the cross-lingual taggers on language pairs where annotated data is available for both languages. The annotated target language data is used only during evaluation and not for training. Second, we perform a downstream evaluation by including the morphological attributes predicted by the tagger as features in a dependency parser to guage the effectiveness of our approach in a setting where one does not have access to gold morphological annotations.
5.1 Experimental setup
As source of parallel training data we use Europarl222http://www.statmt.org/europarl/ [Koehn2005] version 7. Sentences are tokenized but not lower-cased, and sentences longer than 80 words are excluded. In our experiments we learn taggers for a set of 11 European languages that have both UD training data with morphological features, and parallel data in Europarl: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish. We train cross-lingual models in two setups: The first uses English as source language; in the second we train models with different source languages for each target language.
Word alignments over the parallel data are obtained using FastAlign [Dyer et al.2013]
. High-confidence bidirectional word alignments are constructed by intersecting the alignments in the two directions and including alignment points only if the posterior probabilities in both directions are above the alignment threshold. For each language pair all the word-aligned parallel data available (between and million target-side tokens per language) are used to extract the type constraints, and the models are trained on a subset of million target-side tokens (optionally with their token constraints).
The number of distinct attribute-value pairs appearing in the tagsets depends on the language pair and ranges between and , with on average (including POS tags). The number of distinct composite morphological tags is on average, with a much larger range, between and . The English UD data has 116 tags composed out of 51 distinct attribute-value pairs. Therefore, we can project a reasonable number of morpho-syntactic attributes from English, although the number of attribute combinations that occur in the data is less than for morphologically richer languages.
The source text is tagged with supervised taggers, trained with Wsabie on the UD training data for each of the source languages used. For each language pair, we train a distinct source-side model covering only the attribute types appearing in both languages. This is meant to obtain a maximally accurate source-side tagger, while accepting that our approach cannot predict target-side attributes that are absent from the source language. The average accuracy of the English taggers on the UD test data is . The source-side taggers over all the language pairs we experiment on have an average accuracy of , with a minimum of and a maximum of .
The hyperparameters of the Wsabie taggers are tuned on the English development set, and the same parameters are used for the Wsabie target-side models trained on the projected tags. The optimal setting is a learning rate of, embedding dimension size , margin , and 25 training iterations.
Hyperparameters for the projection models are set by tuning on the UD dev set accuracy for English to Danish. English was chosen as it is the language with the most available data and the most likely to be used when projecting to other languages; Danish simply because its corpus size is typical of the larger languages in Europarl. Using a small grid search, we choose the parameters that give the best average accuracy across all four projection model instances we consider. This allows using the same hyperparameters for all these models, an important factor in making them comparable in the evaluation, since the hyperparameters determine the effective training data. The parameters tuned in this manner are the alignment threshold , which is set to , and the type distribution threshold , set to .
5.3 Tagging evaluation setup
In order to evaluate the induced taggers on the annotated UD data for the target languages, we define two settings that circumvent mismatches between source and target language annotations to different degrees.
The Standard setting involves first making minor corrections to certain predicted POS values to account for inconsistencies in the original annotated data. When predicted by the model, the POS tag values absent from the target language training corpus are deterministically mapped to the most-related value present in the target language in the following way: PROPN to NOUN; SYM and INTJ to X; SYM and X to PUNCT. Besides POS, the evaluation considers only those attribute types that appear in both languages’ training corpora, i.e., the set of attributes for which the model was trained. Note that this leaves cases intact where the model predicts certain attribute values that appear only in one of the two languages; it is thus penalised for making mistakes on values that it cannot learn under our projection approach.
The second evaluation setting, Intersected, relaxes the latter aspect: it only considers attribute-value pairs appearing in the training corpora of both languages. The motivation for this is to get a better measurement of the accuracy of our method, assuming that the tagsets are consistent.
In both settings we report macro-averaged F1 scores over all the considered attribute types. Results for Wsabie are averaged over 3 random restarts because it uses stochastic optimization during training.
5.4 Tagging results projecting from English
|HMM projected type||53.86||(-)||58.67||(-)||79.45||(-)|
|HMM projected type and token||48.49||(-)||52.40||(-)||73.61||(-)|
|projected type and token||53.36||(0.19)||57.77||(0.21)||79.94||(0.11)|
languages. All the results except for the first two rows are for Wsabie models. The standard deviation overruns is given in brackets.
Following previous work on projecting POS tags and the assumption that it is easier to obtain parallel data between a low-resource language and English than with another language, we start by training cross-lingual taggers using English as source language.
The overall tagging results are given in Table 1. In addition to evaluating the morphological tags in the two settings described above, we also report accuracies for POS tags only, projected jointly with the morphological attributes.
We find that for both the HMM and Wsabie models the performance with type and token constraints is worse than when only using type constraints. TackstromDPMN13 similarly found that for HMMs for POS projection, models with joint constraints do not perform better than those using only type constraints. They postulated that this is due to the type dictionaries having the same biases as token projections, and therefore the model with joint constraints not being able to filter out systematic errors in the projections.
For both sets of constraints the performance of the Wsabie model is close to that of the corresponding HMM, despite the Wsabie model having a linear runtime against the quadratic runtime of the HMM.
As another baseline we train a Wsabie model on unambiguous type constraints, i.e., we only extract training examples for words which only have a single tag in the tag dictionary. Including ambiguous type constraints gives an average improvement of .
As a target ceiling on performance we train a Wsabie model with supervised type constraints. This model uses type constraints based on an oracle morphological tag dictionary extracted from the gold training data of the target language. It is trained on the same training data as the projected models (without token constraints). The model scores higher on Standard than on Intersected, as it has access to annotations for the full set of tags used in the target language, not just the restricted set that can be projected. This oracle performs on average better than the projected type constraints model on Intersected. Therefore, despite the promising results of our approach, there is still a considerable amount of noise in the type constraints extracted from the aligned data.
We also compare the performance of the model to that of a supervised model trained on a small annotated corpus. Average performance when training on annotated tokens is only a few points higher than that of the best projected model for Intersected. Given that is it expensive to let annotators learn to annotate a large set of attributes, even for a small corpus, it shows that our model can bring considerable benefits in practice to the development of NLP models for low-resource languages. It is possible to obtain further improvements in performance by learning jointly from a small annotated dataset and parallel data [Duong et al.2014], but we leave that for future work.
The results when evaluating only the POS tags follow the same pattern, except that the overall level of accuracy is much higher than when considering all morphological attributes. For POS, the models with projected constraints actually perform better than those with supervised type constraints. In this case the benefits from learning constraints from a larger set of word types seem to outweigh the noise in the projections. The projected models are also more accurate than the supervised model trained on tokens.
5.5 Multilingual tagging results
Results for cross-lingual experiments on all pairs of the target languages under consideration are given in Table 2, using the Standard evaluation setup. We make use of Wsabie for these experiments, as it is a more efficient model, which is especially significant when training models with large tagsets.
We see that there is large variance in the morphological tagging accuracies across language pairs. In most cases the source language for which we learn the most accurate model for morphological tagging on the target language is a related language. The Romance languages we consider (Spanish, Italian and Portuguese) seem to transfer particularly well across each other. Swedish and Danish also transfer well to each other, while English transfers best to Dutch, which the former is most closely related to among the languages compared here. However, there are also some cases of unrelated source languages performing best: Using Danish as source language gives the highest performing models for both Bulgarian and Czech. When comparing these results, however, one should keep in mind that the attribute type sets used to train taggers from different source languages for the same target language is not always the same (due to our definition of theStandard evaluation), therefore these results should not be interpreted directly as indicating which source language gives the best target language performance on a particular tagset.
We compare the results of the Standard and Intersected evaluations, both when using English as source language, and when using the source language which gives the highest accuracy on Standard for each target language (Table 3). We see that the gap in performance between the two evaluations tends to be larger when projecting from English than when projecting from the source language which performs best for each target language.
One of the main causes of variation in performance is annotation differences. Languages that are morphologically rich tend to have lower performance, but we also see variation between similar languages: There is a performance gap between Danish and Swedish when projecting from English, even though they are closely related.
We also investigate the effect of the choice of source language on the accuracy of the projected POS tags (Table 4). Again, we compare the performance with English as source (which is standard for previous work on POS projection) to that of the best source language for each target. Although the gap in performance is smaller than for the full evaluation, we see that for most target languages we can still do better by projecting from a language other than English.
Detailed per attribute results for the Standard evaluation are given in Table 5, again comparing the results of projecting from English to that of the most accurate model for each target language. We see that there are large differences in accuracy across attributes and across languages. In some cases, the transfer is unsuccessful. For example, degree accuracy in Italian is F1 when projecting from English and F1 projecting from Portuguese. Some of the cases can be explained by differences in where an attribute is marked: For example, for definiteness the performance is from English to Bulgarian, as Bulgarian marks definiteness on nouns and adjectives rather than on determiners. Other attributes are very language-dependent. Gender transfers well between Romance languages, but poorly when transferring from English.
5.6 Parsing evaluation
To evaluate the effect of our models on a downstream task, we apply the cross-lingual taggers induced using English as source language to dependency parsing. This is applicable to a scenario where a language might have a corpus annotated with dependency trees and universal POS, but not morphological attributes. We want to determine how much of the performance gain from features based on supervised morphological tags we can recover with the tags predicted by our model.
|no morph||projected type||supervised|
As baseline we use a reimplementation of ZhangN11, an arc-eager transition-based dependency parser with a rich feature-set, with beam-size , trained for epochs with a structured perceptron. We assume that universal POS tags are available, using a supervised SVM POS tagger for training and evaluation.
To include the morphology, we add features based on the predicted tags of the word on top of the stack and the first two words on the buffer.
Parsing results are given in Table 6. We report labelled attachment scores (LAS) for the baseline with no morphological tags, the model with features predicted by Wsabie with projected type constraints, and the model with features predicted by the supervised morphological tagger.
We obtain improvements in parsing accuracies for all languages except Bulgarian when adding the induced morphological tags. Using the projected tags as features recovers ( LAS absolute) of the average gain that supervised morphology features delivers over the baseline parser. The parser with features from the supervised tagger trained on tokens obtains LAS on average. This improvement of + LAS over the baseline versus the + of our method shows that the tags predicted by our projected models are more useful as features than those predicted by a small supervised model.
To investigate the effect of source language choice for the projected models in this evaluation, we trained a model for Swedish using Danish as source language. The parsing performance is insignificantly different from using English as source, despite the accuracy of the tags projected from Danish being higher.
FaruquiMS16 show that features from induced morpho-syntactic lexicons can also improve dependency parsing accuracy. However, their method relies on having a seed lexicon ofannotated word types, while our method does not require any morphological annotations in the target language.
6 Future Work
A big challenge in cross-lingual morphology is that of relatedness between source and target languages. Although we evaluate our models on multiple source-target language pairs, more work is required to investigate strategies for choosing which source language to use for a low-resource target language. A related direction is to constructing models from multiple source languages, as our results show that the overall best-performing source language for a given target language may not always have the best performance on all attributes.
Another direction is to make use of dictionaries such as Wiktionary to obtain type constraints, similar to previous work on weakly-supervised POS tagging [Li et al.2012, Täckström et al.2013]. SylakGlassmanKYQ15 and SylakGlassmanKPQY15 proposed a morphological schema and method to extract annotations in that schema from Wiktionary. Although different from the schema used in this paper, their method can be used to extract type dictionaries for morphological tags that can be used to complement constraints extracted from parallel data.
Finally, greater use can be made of syntactic information: There is a close relation between the syntactic structure expressed in dependency parses and inflections in morphologically rich languages; by including this syntactic structure in our models we can induce morphological tags, e.g. related to case, that is also expressed in dependency parses.
In this paper we proposed a method that can successfully induce morphological taggers for resource-scarce languages using tags projected across bitext. It relies on access to a morphological tagger for a source-language and a moderate amount of bitext. The method obtains strong performance on a range of language pairs. We showed that downstream tasks such as dependency parsing can be improved by using the predictions from the tagger as features. Our results provide a strong baseline for future work in weakly-supervised morphological tagging.
This research was primarily performed while the first author was an intern at Google Inc. We thank Oscar Täckström, Kuzman Ganchev, Bernd Bohnet and Ryan McDonald for valuable assistance and discussions about this work.
- [Ahlberg et al.2015] Malin Ahlberg, Markus Forsberg, and Mans Hulden. 2015. Paradigm classification in supervised learning of morphology. In Proceedings of NAACL, pages 1024–1029.
[Berg-Kirkpatrick et al.2010]
Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, Alexandre Bouchard-Côté, John DeNero, and Dan
Painless unsupervised learning with features.In Proceedings of NAACL, pages 582–590.
- [Besacier et al.2014] Lauent Besacier, Ettiene Barnard, Alexey Karpov, and Tanja Schultz. 2014. Automatic speech recognition for under-resourced languages: A survey. Speech Communication, 56:85–100.
- [Creutz and Lagus2007] Mathias Creutz and Krista Lagus. 2007. Unsupervised models for morpheme segmentation and morphology learning. ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing, 4(1).
- [Das and Petrov2011] Dipanjan Das and Slav Petrov. 2011. Unsupervised part-of-speech tagging with bilingual graph-based projections. In Proceedings of ACL, pages 600–609.
- [de Marneffe et al.2014] Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Timothy Dozat, Natalia Silveira, Katri Haverinen, Filip Ginter, Joakim Nivre, and Christopher D. Manning. 2014. Universal dependencies: A cross-linguistic typology. In Proceedings of LREC.
- [Duong et al.2014] Long Duong, Trevor Cohn, Karin Verspoor, Steven Bird, and Paul Cook. 2014. What can we get from 1000 tokens? A case study of multilingual pos tagging for resource-poor languages. In Proceedings of EMNLP, pages 886–897.
- [Durrett and DeNero2013] Greg Durrett and John DeNero. 2013. Supervised learning of complete morphological paradigms. In Proceedings of NAACL, pages 1185–1195.
- [Dyer et al.2013] Chris Dyer, Victor Chahuneau, and Noah A Smith. 2013. A simple, fast, and effective reparameterization of IBM Model 2. In Proceeding of NAACL, pages 682–686.
[Faruqui et al.2016]
Manaal Faruqui, Ryan McDonald, and Radu Soricut.
Morpho-syntactic lexicon generation using graph-based semi-supervised learning.Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 4:1–16.
- [Fossum and Abney2005] Victoria Fossum and Steven Abney. 2005. Automatically inducing a part-of-speech tagger by projecting from multiple source languages across aligned corpora. In Proceedings of IJCNLP, pages 862–873.
- [Ganchev and Das2013] Kuzman Ganchev and Dipanjan Das. 2013. Cross-lingual discriminative learning of sequence models with posterior regularization. In Proceedings of EMNLP, pages 1996–2006.
[Hajič et al.2009]
Jan Hajič, Massimiliano Ciaramita, Richard Johansson, Daisuke Kawahara, Maria Antònia Martí, Lluís Màrquez, Adam Meyers, Joakim Nivre, Sebastian Padó, Jan Štěpánek, et al.2009. The CoNLL-2009 shared task: Syntactic and semantic dependencies in multiple languages. In Proceedings of CoNLL: Shared Task, pages 1–18.
- [Koehn2005] Philipp Koehn. 2005. Europarl: A parallel corpus for statistical machine translation. In MT summit, volume 5, pages 79–86.
- [Li et al.2012] Shen Li, João Graça, and Ben Taskar. 2012. Wiki-ly supervised part-of-speech tagging. In Proceedings of EMNLP-CoNLL, pages 1389–1398, July.
- [Mikolov et al.2013] Tomas Mikolov, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg S Corrado, and Jeff Dean. 2013. Distributed representations of words and phrases and their compositionality. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pages 3111–3119.
- [Müller and Schuetze2015] Thomas Müller and Hinrich Schuetze. 2015. Robust morphological tagging with word representations. In Proceedings of NAACL, pages 526–536, Denver, Colorado, May–June.
- [Nivre et al.2015] Joakim Nivre, Željko Agić, Maria Jesus Aranzabe, Masayuki Asahara, Aitziber Atutxa, Miguel Ballesteros, John Bauer, Kepa Bengoetxea, Riyaz Ahmad Bhat, Cristina Bosco, Sam Bowman, Giuseppe G. A. Celano, Miriam Connor, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Arantza Diaz de Ilarraza, Kaja Dobrovoljc, Timothy Dozat, Tomaž Erjavec, Richárd Farkas, Jennifer Foster, Daniel Galbraith, Filip Ginter, Iakes Goenaga, Koldo Gojenola, Yoav Goldberg, Berta Gonzales, Bruno Guillaume, Jan Hajič, Dag Haug, Radu Ion, Elena Irimia, Anders Johannsen, Hiroshi Kanayama, Jenna Kanerva, Simon Krek, Veronika Laippala, Alessandro Lenci, Nikola Ljubešić, Teresa Lynn, Christopher Manning, Cǎtǎlina Mǎrǎnduc, David Mareček, Héctor Martínez Alonso, Jan Mašek, Yuji Matsumoto, Ryan McDonald, Anna Missilä, Verginica Mititelu, Yusuke Miyao, Simonetta Montemagni, Shunsuke Mori, Hanna Nurmi, Petya Osenova, Lilja Øvrelid, Elena Pascual, Marco Passarotti, Cenel-Augusto Perez, Slav Petrov, Jussi Piitulainen, Barbara Plank, Martin Popel, Prokopis Prokopidis, Sampo Pyysalo, Loganathan Ramasamy, Rudolf Rosa, Shadi Saleh, Sebastian Schuster, Wolfgang Seeker, Mojgan Seraji, Natalia Silveira, Maria Simi, Radu Simionescu, Katalin Simkó, Kiril Simov, Aaron Smith, Jan Štěpánek, Alane Suhr, Zsolt Szántó, Takaaki Tanaka, Reut Tsarfaty, Sumire Uematsu, Larraitz Uria, Viktor Varga, Veronika Vincze, Zdeněk Žabokrtský, Daniel Zeman, and Hanzhi Zhu. 2015. Universal dependencies 1.2. LINDAT/CLARIN digital library at Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics, Charles University in Prague.
- [Petrov et al.2012] Slav Petrov, Dipanjan Das, and Ryan McDonald. 2012. A universal part-of-speech tagset. In Proceedings of LREC.
- [Snyder and Barzilay2008] Benjamin Snyder and Regina Barzilay. 2008. Unsupervised multilingual learning for morphological segmentation. In Proceedings of ACL, pages 737–745.
- [Sylak-Glassman et al.2015a] John Sylak-Glassman, Christo Kirov, Matt Post, Roger Que, and David Yarowsky. 2015a. A universal feature schema for rich morphological annotation and fine-grained cross-lingual part-of-speech tagging. In Proceedings of Systems and Frameworks for Computational Morphology: Fourth International Workshop, pages 72–93. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
- [Sylak-Glassman et al.2015b] John Sylak-Glassman, Christo Kirov, David Yarowsky, and Roger Que. 2015b. A language-independent feature schema for inflectional morphology. In Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP (short papers), pages 674–680.
- [Täckström et al.2012] Oscar Täckström, Ryan McDonald, and Jakob Uszkoreit. 2012. Cross-lingual word clusters for direct transfer of linguistic structure. In Proceedings of NAACL, pages 477–487.
- [Täckström et al.2013] Oscar Täckström, Dipanjan Das, Slav Petrov, Ryan McDonald, and Joakim Nivre. 2013. Token and type constraints for cross-lingual part-of-speech tagging. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1:1–12.
- [Toutanova et al.2008] Kristina Toutanova, Hisami Suzuki, and Achim Ruopp. 2008. Applying morphology generation models to machine translation. In Proceedings of ACL-HLT, pages 558–566.
- [Tsarfaty et al.2010] Reut Tsarfaty, Djamé Seddah, Yoav Goldberg, Sandra Kübler, Marie Candito, Jennifer Foster, Yannick Versley, Ines Rehbein, and Lamia Tounsi. 2010. Statistical parsing of morphologically rich languages (SPMRL): what, how and whither. In Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically-Rich Languages, pages 1–12.
- [Uszkoreit and Brants2008] Jakob Uszkoreit and Thorsten Brants. 2008. Distributed word clustering for large scale class-based language modeling in machine translation. In Proceedings of ACL-HLT, pages 755–762.
[Weston et al.2011]
Jason Weston, Samy Bengio, and Nicolas Usunier.
Wsabie: Scaling up to large vocabulary image annotation.
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI).
- [Wisniewski et al.2014] Guillaume Wisniewski, Nicolas Pécheux, Souhir Gahbiche-Braham, and François Yvon. 2014. Cross-lingual part-of-speech tagging through ambiguous learning. In Proceedings of EMNLP, pages 1779–1785.
- [Yarowsky et al.2001] David Yarowsky, Grace Ngai, and Richard Wicentowski. 2001. Incuding multilingual text analysis tools via robust projection across aligned corpora. In Proceedings of HLT.
- [Zeman2008] Daniel Zeman. 2008. Reusable tagset conversion using tagset drivers. In Proceedings of LREC.
- [Zhang and Nivre2011] Yue Zhang and Joakim Nivre. 2011. Transition-based dependency parsing with rich non-local features. In Proceedings of ACL-HLT, pages 188–193.