Cross-language Citation Recommendation via Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph

12/31/2018 ∙ by Zhuoren Jiang, et al. ∙ Microsoft Indiana University Bloomington Peking University SUN YAT-SEN UNIVERSITY 0

While the volume of scholarly publications has increased at a frenetic pace, accessing and consuming the useful candidate papers, in very large digital libraries, is becoming an essential and challenging task for scholars. Unfortunately, because of language barrier, some scientists (especially the junior ones or graduate students who do not master other languages) cannot efficiently locate the publications hosted in a foreign language repository. In this study, we propose a novel solution, cross-language citation recommendation via Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG), to address this new problem. HRLHG can learn a representation function by mapping the publications, from multilingual repositories, to a low-dimensional joint embedding space from various kinds of vertexes and relations on a heterogeneous graph. By leveraging both global (task specific) plus local (task independent) information as well as a novel supervised hierarchical random walk algorithm, the proposed method can optimize the publication representations by maximizing the likelihood of locating the important cross-language neighborhoods on the graph. Experiment results show that the proposed method can not only outperform state-of-the-art baseline models, but also improve the interpretability of the representation model for cross-language citation recommendation task.

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1. Introduction

“It takes me a lot more time to find a useful paper… and it takes me even longer to read it… ” while a non-English speaking PhD student complained this in a seminar, other PhD candidates, in the similar background, agreed with her and they shared the same frustration when they are trying to find and consume the helpful English publications. Professor’s (a native speaker) response came later as a relief “well, I agree, but my problem is even bigger… I cannot read the papers in your language at all…” This dialog initialized our thinking about this new problem - Cross Language Publication (Citation) Recommendation, a.k.a. how can we propose a useful method/system to assist scholars to efficiently locate the useful publications written in different languages (a typical scenario of this task is to help non-English speaking students to search for useful English papers). Increased academic globalization is forcing a scholar to break the linguistic boundaries, and English (or any other dominant language) may not always serve as the gatekeeper to scientific discourse.

Unfortunately, existing academic search engines (e.g. Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic Search, etc.) along with many sophisticated retrieval and recommendation algorithms (He et al., 2010; Jiang et al., 2015; Tang and Zhang, 2009) cannot cope with this problem efficiently. For instance, most of the existing citation recommendation algorithms work in a monolingual context, and the scholarly graph-based random walk may not work well in a multilingual environment (section 4 will prove this).

Moreover, Cross-language Citation Recommendation (CCR) can be a quite challenging problem comparing with classical scholarly recommendation due to the following reasons:

Information need shifting. Different from monolingual citation recommendation, we cannot directly calculate the relevance between the papers written in two different languages. A straightforward solution is to utilize machine translation (MT) (Bahdanau et al., 2015) to translate the query content (e.g., keyword, text or user profile), then, use existing matching models (Zhai and Lafferty, 2001; Guo et al., 2016) to recommend the proper papers in target language. However, MT based methods and the CCR task can be fundamentally different. The goal of MT is to find a target text given a source text based on the same semantic meaning (Bahdanau et al., 2015) (e.g., find the papers contain exact or similar matched phrases or sentences), while the CCR task is focusing on recommending “relevant” papers in target language to the given query in the source language (Tang et al., 2014)

. When research context changes, content translation may not perform well. For instance, in Chinese/Japanese research context, machine learning methods can be important for word segmentation studies, which may not be the case for the English counterpart. MT approach cannot address this kind of information need shifting problem.

Sparse inter-repositories citation relations. Besides textual information, citation relations are quite important for citation recommendation. In the prior studies, recommendation algorithms can learn the “relevance” by using citation relations on a graph (Ren et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2014). However, compared to the enormous monolingual citation relations, cross-language citations can be very sparse. For instance, in a computer science related bilingual (Chinese-English) context, we find the papers in ACM and Wanfang111One of the biggest digital libraries in Chinese., on average, have about 28 times more monolingual citation relations than cross-language ones. It is difficult to effectively employ the citation relations for cross-language citation recommendation by using classical graph mining methods.

Heterogeneous information environment. Intuitively, one could integrate the cross-language content semantics, citation relations and other useful heterogeneous information (e.g., keywords and authors) to address CCR. However, most existing text or graph based ranking algorithms rely on a set of human defined rules (e.g., sequential relation path (Lao and Cohen, 2010) and meta-path (Sun et al., 2011)) to integrate different kinds of information. On a complex cross-language scholarly graph, this kind of handcrafting features can be time-consuming, incomplete and biased.

To address these challenges, in this study, we propose a novel solution, Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG), for cross-language citation recommendation. By constructing a novel cross-language heterogeneous graph with various types of vertexes and relations, we “semantically” enrich the basic citation structure to carry more rich information. To avoid the handcrafting feature usage, we propose an innovative algorithm to project a vertex (on the heterogeneous graph) to a low-dimensional joint embedding space. Unlike prior hyperedge or meta-path approaches, the proposed algorithm can generate a set of Relation Type Usefulness Distributions (RTUD), which enables fully automatic heterogeneous graph navigation. As Figure 1 shows, the hierarchical random walk algorithm enables a two-level random walk guided by two different sets of distributions. The global one (relation type usefulness distributions) is designed for graph schema level navigation (task-specific); while the local one (relation transition distributions) targets on graph instance level walking (task-independent).

Figure 1. Hierarchical random walk illustration (different colours denote different types)

By using HRLHG, we can recommend a list of ranked cross-language citations for a given paper/query in the source language. We evaluate the proposed algorithm in Chinese and English scholarly corpora, i.e., Wanfang and ACM digital libraries. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is superior than state-of-the-art models for cross-language citation recommendation task.

The contribution of this paper is fourfold.

First, we propose a novel method (Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph) to characterize both the global and local semantic plus topological information for the publication representations. Second, we improve the interpretability of the publication representation model. By using an iterative EM (expectation-maximization) approach, the proposed algorithm can learn the implicit biases for cross-language citation recommendation, which significantly differs from classical heterogeneous graph mining algorithms. Third, we apply the proposed embedding method for a novel cross-language citation recommendation task. An experiment on real-world bilingual scientific datasets is employed to validate the proposed approach. Last but not least, although in this study we focus on cross-language citation recommendation task, the proposed method can be generalized for different tasks that are based on heterogeneous graph embedding learning.

2. Problem Formulation

Compared to the homogeneous graph, the heterogeneous graph has been demonstrated as a more efficient way to model real world data for many applications, it represents an abstraction of the real world, focusing on the objects and the interactions between the objects (Liu et al., 2014). Formally, following the works (Sun et al., 2011; Dong et al., 2017), we present the definitions of a heterogeneous graph with its schema.

Definition 1 ().

Heterogeneous Graph, namely heterogeneous information network, is defined as a graph , where denotes the vertex set, and denotes the edge (relation) set. is the vertex type mapping function, and denotes the set of vertex types. is relation type mapping function, and denotes the set of relation types. .

Definition 2 ().

Graph Schema. The graph schema is a meta template for a heterogeneous graph , denoted as .

The graph schema is used to specify type constraints on the sets of vertexes and relations of a heterogeneous graph. A graph that follows a graph schema is then called a Graph Instance following the target schema (Liu et al., 2014).

Definition 3 ().

Cross-language citation recommendation

. The CCR problem can be defined as a conditional probability

, i.e., the probability of in target language given a particular query paper in the source language:

where is a representation function, which can project each paper to a low-dimensional embedding space. is probability scoring function based on the learned publication embeddings.

The CCR problem can be formalized as:

  • Input: A query paper (or partial text/keywords in the query paper) in a source language.

  • Output: A list of ranked papers in target language that could be potentially cited or useful given the input paper.

In this study, we investigate the novel method to enhance the representation learning function for CCR. More detailed method will be introduced in Section 3.

3. Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph

In this section, we discuss the proposed method in detail. We first formulate the heterogeneous graph based representation learning framework for CCR task (3.1), then, introduce the hierarchical random walk-based strategy by leveraging the critical relation type usefulness distribution training algorithm (3.2)

3.1. Heterogeneous Graph Representation Learning Framework for CCR

Due to the aforementioned challenges of CCR task, the proposed representation model can hardly depend only on textual or citation information. In this study, we integrate various kinds of entities and relations into a heterogeneous graph (as Figure 2 shows, and the detailed node and type information can refer to Table 1). Then, the goal is to design a novel representation learning model to encapsulate both semantic and topological information into a low-dimensional joint embedding for CCR task.

Figure 2. The constructed cross-language heterogeneous graph (different colours denote different types)
No. Vertex Description
1 Paper in Source Language
2 Paper in Target Language
3 Keyword in Source Language
4 Keyword in Target Language
No. Relation Description
1 A paper (in source language) is semantically related to another paper (in target language). We use machine translation* and language model (with Dirichlet smoothing) to generate this relation (Zhai and Lafferty, 2001).
2 A Paper (in source language) has a monolingual citation relation to another paper (in source language).
3 A Paper (in target language) has a monolingual citation relation to another paper (in target language).
4 A Paper (in source language) has a cross-language citation relation to another paper (in target language).
5 A Paper (in source language) has a keyword (in source language).
6 A Paper (in target language) has a keyword (in target language).
7 A keyword (in source language) has a monolingual citation relation to another keyword (in source language).
8 A keyword (in target language) has a monolingual citation relation to another keyword (in target language).
9 A keyword (in source language) has a cross-language citation relation to another keyword (in target language).
10 A keyword (in source language) is translated into the corresponding keyword (in target language)*.
  • *As this study is not focusing on machine translation, we use Google machine translation API (https://cloud.google.com/translate) to translate the paper abstract and keywords.

  • The keyword citation relations are derived from paper citation relations.

  • Because of the space limitation, the detailed relation transition probability calculation can be found at https://github.com/GraphEmbedding/HRLHG.

Table 1. Vertexes and relations of cross-language heterogeneous graph

Formally, given a heterogeneous graph , is the vertex type mapping function and is the relation type mapping function. The goal of vertex representation learning is to obtain the latent vertex representations by mapping vertexes into a low-dimensional space , . The learned representations are able to preserve the information in . We use as the mapping function from multi-typed vertexes to feature representations. Here, is a parameter specifying the number of dimensions. is a matrix of size parameters. The following objective function should be optimized for heterogeneous graph representation learning.

(1)

where denotes ’s network neighborhood (“context”) with the type of vertexes. The feature learning methods are based on the Skip-gram architecture (Mikolov et al., 2013a; Mikolov et al., 2013c; Bengio et al., 2013)

, which is originally developed for natural language processing and word embedding. Unlike the linear nature of text, the structural and semantic characteristics of graph allow the vertex’s network neighborhood,

, to be defined in various of ways, i.e., direct (one-hop) neighbors of . It is critical to model vertex neighborhood in graph representation learning. Following the previous network embedding models (Perozzi et al., 2014; Grover and Leskovec, 2016; Dong et al., 2017), in this study, we leverage a random walk-based strategy for every vertex to generate . For instance, in Figure 2, we can sample a random walk sequence of length , which results in , , and (window size is 1). The detailed description of this method will be introduced in section 3.2.

defines the conditional probability of having a context vertex given the node ’s representation, which is commonly modeled as a softmax function :

(2)

In this study, we use a Heterogeneous Softmax function for conditional probability calculation (Dong et al., 2017):

(3)

where is the vertex set of type in . Different from common Skip-gram form, the Heterogeneous Skip-gram with heterogeneous softmax function can specify one set of multinomial distributions for each type of neighborhood in the output layer of the Skip-gram model. Stochastic gradient ascent is used for optimizing the model parameters of . Negative sampling (Mikolov et al., 2013c) is applied for optimization efficiency. Especially, for “heterogeneous softmax”, the negative vertexes are sampled from the graph according to their type information (Dong et al., 2017).

Recall the CCR definition in section 2, given a query paper in source language, the problem is to compute the recommendation probability of a candidate paper in target language, with representation function and probability scoring function . In this study, is the optimized heterogeneous vertex representation

, and we use cosine similarity with Relu function for

:

(4)

3.2. Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph

In this section, we propose a novel hierarchical random walk-based strategy for vertex neighborhoods on heterogeneous graph. Before moving on, let’s clarify four challenges for random walk-based graph embedding models.

(1) The existing homogeneous random walk-based embedding approaches, e.g., (Perozzi et al., 2014; Grover and Leskovec, 2016), cannot be directly applied to address the heterogeneous graph problems. For instance, as Figure 2 shows, between the paper pair and , there are two different types of relations: ( is semantically related to ) and ( cites ), but the homogeneous random walk-based approaches cannot distinguish the difference of relation types, then the neighborhood generating could be problematic for further representation learning.

(2) Recent heterogeneous graph embedding algorithms (Dong et al., 2017; Fu et al., 2017) require a domain expert to generate random walk hypotheses, which can be inconvenient and problematic for complex heterogeneous graphs.

(3) Insufficient global information. For each step in the walk, a lot of random walk-based models are solely depending on the (local) network topology of the vertexes, but global information, i.e., graph schema information, may bring important information to navigate the walker on the graph.

(4) Most existing graph embedding methods aim to encode the topological information of the graphs, which are task independent. For instance, as described in Table 1, the vertexes and relations with transition probability are fixed after the graph is constructed. We argue that, the learned representation should be optimized for different tasks, e.g., cross-language citation recommendation task for this study. A flexible representation mechanism can be important to address recommendation problem via heterogeneous graph. For instance, on a complex graph, some kinds of relations can be more important for random walk than others given the task (conditional relation type usefulness probability given the task).

Figure 3. Relation type usefulness distributions illustration

To address these challenges, we propose a Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG) method. By introducing a set of Relation Type Usefulness Distributions (RTUD) on graph schema, the hierarchical (two-level) random walk algorithm can be more appropriate for heterogeneous network structure. As RTUD can be automatically learned, we don’t need expert knowledge (e.g., generating meta-path) for representation learning. Meanwhile, by using RTUD, we not only bring global information for guiding the random walk, but also utilize the task specific information for optimizing the random walk generation.

Given a specific task on a heterogeneous graph : Relation Type Usefulness Distributions (RTUD)

is a group of task-preferred (usefulness) probability distributions over relation types, which is defined at graph schema level (global level) of

. As Figure 3 shows, RTUD can be represented as a probability matrix of size , where row of this matrix represents a relation type usefulness distribution given a specific vertex type , in which denotes the usefulness probability of a relation type given .

Correspondingly, Relation Transition Distributions (RTD) is a group of task-independent probability distributions associated to relations, which is defined at graph instance level (local level) of . Given a vertex of type , denotes the transition distribution of a type relation (from vertex type to vertex type ), are vertexes of type. RTD aims to reflect the basic semantics of different types of relations in and focuses on the local structure around . For instance, Table 1 defines the RTD of cross-language heterogeneous graph.

As Figure 1 shows, with RTUD and RTD, we can simulate a hierarchical random walk of fixed length in . In order to avoid walking into a dead end, the directions of relations are ignored in hierarchical random walk algorithm. The hierarchical random walk process is as follows:

  1. For vertex in the walk:

    1. Generate from RTUD based on ’s vertex type

    2. Probabilistically draw a relation type from

    3. For the generated relation type

      1. Generate from RTD based on

      2. Based on , probabilistically draw one vertex from as the destination vertex

      3. Walk forward to

1:Initialize RTUD, a.k.a, the probability matrix (Row: vertex type, column: relation type). For each row , every element is set to be equal (here, denotes , must fit for the graph schema , the that violates is set to 0)
2:
3:procedure E-Step: K-shortest paths ranking
4:     Initialize , every element is set to be zero
5:     for each  do
6:          Calculate and find K-shortest paths
7:          for each  do
8:               for each relation from  do
9:                    Update by
10:               end for
11:          end for
12:     end for
13:      Call M-Step
14:end procedure
15:
16:procedure M-Step: Update
17:     for each row (vertex type) do
18:          for each relation  do
19:               update by
20:          end for
21:     end for
22:     if  stabilize (a.k.a, % of the shortest paths ranking in the all shortest path sets are no longer changing) then
23:          Algorithm End
24:     else
25:           Call E-Step
26:     end if
27:end procedure
Algorithm 1 RTUD training algorithm: a K-shortest paths ranking based EM approach

In this study, with a set of labeled vertex pairs , we propose an iterative K-shortest paths ranking based EM (expectation - maximization) approach to obtain and optimize RTUD. is generated based on the task-specified relevance. For instance, for CCR task, a pair of paper vertexes connected via a cross-language relation could be a labeled pair for RTUD training. For a specific task, the representations of relevant pair of vertexes should be similar.

Then, in the proposed hierarchical representation learning framework, the goals are: (1) the vertex neighborhood should contain the task-relevant vertexes to the greatest extent possible; (2) the distance (random walk sequence length) between two task-relevant vertexes should be as short as possible. In other words, RTUD should be trained to navigate the random walk between the related vertexes pairs, a.k.a., with the trained RTUD, there is a greater chance that one relevant vertex could random walk to another relevant one on the heterogeneous graph.

We formalize this goal as a K-shortest paths ranking problem. Let a path from to in is a sequence of vertexes and relations with the form:

denotes the set of all paths from to in . Given a relation of type from vertex of type to vertex of type , the ’s weight integrated RTUD and RTD, which can be calculated as:

The weight function of is , a weight sum of all relations from . The shortest path objective is the determination of a path for which holds for any path (Gallo and Pallottino, 1986). Then, the K-shortest paths objective is extended to determine the second, third,…, Kth shortest paths in , that can be denoted as . There are lots of efficient algorithms for this problem, we utilize the method proposed in (de Azevedo et al., 1990). The RTUD training utilizes an EM framework, as described in Algorithm 1.

In Algorithm 1,

is a relation type update factor vector,

denotes the update value of th relation type, denotes one count for the appearance of a specific type relation in the shortest paths. We explore 3 ways for relation type update factor function :

Raw Count (RC): . During each iteration, directly accumulate the relation type count.

Length-Normalized Count (LNC): . During each iteration, accumulate the relation type count that is normalized by the path length. is the length of path . By doing so, we try to minimize the possible bias from the long paths.

Log-Discounted Count (LDC): . During each iteration, accumulate the relation type count that is discounted by path ranking. is the rank of the path , the shortest path’s rank is 1. Using this update function, different shortest paths are given different weights.

For RTUD update function , we define 2 different forms:

Direct Sum (DS): in DS, we update by directly adding the update values, is for normalization, .

Sum with a Dumping Factor (SDF): in order to avoid the extreme probability, in SDF we add a dumping factor for updating, is the possible relation type amount for a specific vertex type (constrained by graph schema).

Note that, RTUD is constrained by graph schema. Given a vertex type , if a relation type violates the graph schema, the probability will be set to zero. For instance, for a keyword vertex, the usefulness probability of the paper citation relation (a relation between paper vertex pairs) is zero. RTUD is task-specified, that means RTUD can dynamically change for different tasks, even though they share the same graph (e.g., we can use this graph for collaborator recommendation task, but the corresponding RTUD may change).

The pseudocode for Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG) is given in Algorithm 2. By applying random walks of fixed length starting from each vertex in , we can minimize the implicit random walk biases. The RTUD can be pre-trained by the K-shortest paths ranking based EM approach. The space complexity of HRLHG is , where is the relation number of . The time complexity is per hierarchical random walk, where is the relation type number, and is the relation instance number of a specific sampled type connected to the current walking vertex. The time complexity can be further reduced, as suggested by (Grover and Leskovec, 2016), if we parallelize the hierarchical random walk simulations, and execute them asynchronously222The source code of HRLHG, constructed graph data (with labeled ground truth) and learned representations are available at https://github.com/GraphEmbedding/HRLHG.

1:RepresentationLearning (Heterogeneous Graph , Relation Transition Distributions (RTD) , Dimensions , Walks per vertex , Random Walk Length , Context Window size , Task-specified Relevance Labeled Set )
2: = K-ShortestPathEM (,)
3:Initialize walks to Empty
4:for iter = 1 to  do
5:     for all vertexes  do
6:          walk = HierarchicalRandomWalk ()
7:          Append walk to walks
8:     end for
9:end for
10: HeterogeneousSkipGram
11:return f
12:
13:HierarchicalRandomWalk (Heterogeneous Graph , Start vertex , Random Walk Length , Relation Type Usefulness Distributions (RTUD) , Relation Transition Distributions (RTD) )
14:Initialize to
15:for  to  do
16:     Generate from based on ’s vertex type
17:     Probabilistically draw a relation type from
18:     Based on , probabilistically draw one vertex from
19:     Append to
20:end for
21:return
Algorithm 2 Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG)

4. Experiment

4.1. Dataset and Experiment Setting

Dataset2. We validated the proposed approach in a citation recommendation task between Chinese and English digital libraries. The goal was to recommend English candidate cited papers for a given Chinese publication. For this experiment, we collected 14,631 Chinese papers from the Wanfang digital library and 248,893 English papers from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) digital library (both in computer science). There were 750,557 English-to-English paper citation relations, 11,252 Chinese-to-Chinese paper citation relations, 27,101 Chinese-to-English paper citation relations, and 12,403 English papers had been cited by 7,900 Chinese papers. By using machine translation333As this study is not focusing on machine translation, we use Google translation API (https://cloud.google.com/translate) to translate the paper abstract and keywords. and language modeling (with Dirichlet smoothing). We generated 158,000 cross-language semantic matching relations (from Chinese to English). There were 3,953 Chinese keywords associated to the collected Chinese papers, and the Chinese paper-keyword-associated relation number was 7,316; while there were 7,436 English keywords associated to the collected English papers and the English paper-keyword-associated relation number was 903,265. Between keywords, There were 283,268 English-to-English keyword citation relations, 2,973 Chinese-to-Chinese keyword citation relations, 9,828 Chinese-to-English keyword citation relations. 2,564 Chinese keywords could be successfully translated into the corresponding English keywords3.

Ground Truth and Evaluation Metric

. For evaluation, we generated a number of positive and negative instances to compare different algorithms for CCR task. The actual cross-language citation relation was used as ground truth (as 0 or 1 relevant scores) for evaluation. For example, if a candidate ACM paper was cited by the a testing Wanfang paper, the relevant score was 1, otherwise it was 0. We generated test and candidate collection data by using the following method: (1) randomly selected a certain proportion of papers from 7,900 Chinese papers that had cross-language citation relations to English corpus; (2) removed all cross-language citation relations from selected Chinese papers (Other relations, e.g., Chinese citation relations, were kept for model training); (3) the selected papers were used as a test collection. All the English papers cited by the Chinese papers in the test collection were used as candidate (cited paper) collection. For evaluation, the different models were compared by using the mean average precision (MAP), normalized discounted cumulative gain at rank (NDCG), precision (P) and Mean Reciprocal Rank (MRR).

Validation Set. For HRLGH, there were several hyper parameters (i.e., for shortest path EM method) and algorithm functions (i.e., and for RTUD training) needed to be tuned. Meanwhile, for a fair comparison, we also tuned the hyper parameters of baselines (i.e., return parameter and in-out parameter for node2vec algorithm) for making sure the baseline algorithms could achieve the best performance. So, we constructed a validation set following the process described above (10% papers were randomly selected for validation). A comprehensive model component analysis and baseline hyper parameter tuning would be conducted via this validation set.

Baselines. We compared with three groups of representation algorithms, from text or graph viewpoints, to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the proposed method. 10-fold cross-validation was applied to avoid evaluation bias.

Textual Content Based Method.

1. Embedding Transformation (Mikolov et al., 2013b): We transformed the testing Chinese paper’s abstract embedding into the English embedding space through a trained transformation matrix. Then, recommend the English citations based on the transformed Chinese abstract embedding, denoted as EF.

2. Machine Translation by Google Translation API + Language Model (with Dirichlet smoothing) (Zhai and Lafferty, 2001): We translated the testing Chinese paper’s abstract into English, and then used language model to recommend English citations, denoted as MT+LM.

Collaborative Filtering Based Method.

3. Item-based Collaborative Filtering (Sarwar et al., 2001): Recommended English citations using Item-based Collaborative Filtering based on (monolingual + cross-language) citation relations, denoted as CF.

4. Popularity-based Collaborative Filtering (Su and Khoshgoftaar, 2009): Recommended English citations using Popularity-based Collaborative Filtering based on (monolingual + cross-language) citation relations, denoted as CF.

Network Representation Learning Based Method.

5. DeepWalk (Perozzi et al., 2014): We used DeepWalk to learn the graph embeddings via uniform random walk in the network and recommended English citations based on the learned embeddings. Because DeepWalk was originally designed for homogeneous graph, for a fair comparison, we applied DeepWalk on two graphs, (1) citation network, denoted as DW

; (2) all typed networks with accumulated relation weights. For this approach, we integrated all relations between two vertexes into one edge, and the weight was estimated by the sum of all integrated relations. Then, a heterogeneous graph could be simplified to a homogeneous graph, denoted as

DW.

6. LINE (Tang et al., 2015): LINE aimed at preserving first-order and second-order proximity in concatenated embeddings. Similar as DeepWalk, we applied LINE on two graphs, with LINE 1st-order and 2nd-order representation approaches. So, there were four different baseline models, denoted as LINE, LINE, LINE and LINE.

7. node2vec (Grover and Leskovec, 2016): node2vec learned graph embeddings via 2nd order random walks in the network. Similar as DeepWalk and LINE, we also applied node2vec on two graphs for comparison, denoted as N2V and N2V. We tuned return parameter and in-out parameter with a grid search over on the validation set, and picked up a best performed parameter setting for experiment, as suggested by (Grover and Leskovec, 2016).

8. metapath2vec++ (Dong et al., 2017): metapath2vec++ was originally designed for heterogeneous graphs. It learned heterogeneous graph embeddings via metapath based random walk and heterogeneous negative sampling in the network. Metapath2vec++ required a human-defined metapath scheme to guide random walks. We tried 3 different metapaths for this experiment: (1) , (2) , (3) . These metapaths were denoted as M2V++, M2V++ and M2V++, respectively. We also trained two learning to rank models (Coordinate Ascent (Metzler and Croft, 2007) and ListNet (Cao et al., 2007)) to further integrate these three metapath2vec++ models (by utilizing each metapath as a ranking feature), denoted as M2V++ and M2V++.

For a fair comparison, for all the random walk based embedding methods, we used the same parameters as follows: (1) The number of walks per vertex : 10; (2) the walk length : 80; (3) the vector dimension : 128; (4) the neighborhood size (Context Window size) : 10. Please note that most original baseline papers used the above parameter settings, and the proposed method also shared the same parameters. For the experiment fairness, we didn’t tune those parameters on validation set. We applied the parameter sensitivity analysis in section 4.2.

4.2. Impact of Different Model Components

Figure 4. Sensitivity analysis for the embedding related parameters
Figure 5. Hyper parameter comparison and algorithm component validation for the proposed method: (a) Comparison of for K-shortest paths ranking based EM training; (b) Comparison of relation type update factor function for RTUD training; (c) Comparison of RTUD update function for training; (d) Comparison of the dumping factor for of SDF form; (e) Comparison of the convergence percentage of K-shortest paths ranking based EM algorithm; (f) Validation of relation type usefulness distributions (RTUD) and heterogeneous skip-gram (HS). (The embedding related parameter setting is: the number of walks per vertex ; the walk length ; the vector dimension ; the context window size )
Algorithm NDCG@10 NDCG@30 NDCG@50 P@10 P@30 P@50 MAP@10 MAP@30 MAP@50 MRR
EF 0.0176 0.0301 0.0384 0.0072 0.0060 0.0054 0.0101 0.0129 0.0140 0.0300
MT+LM 0.3404 0.3811 0.3966 0.1225 0.0573 0.0387 0.2563 0.2739 0.2777 0.4343
CF 0.0980 0.1034 0.1059 0.0330 0.0134 0.0086 0.0772 0.0793 0.0796 0.1290
CF 0.0041 0.0082 0.0108 0.0026 0.0024 0.0022 0.0017 0.0023 0.0026 0.0090
DW 0.2713 0.3060 0.3177 0.1037 0.0502 0.0336 0.2162 0.2348 0.2381 0.3053
DW 0.3606 0.4214 0.4416 0.1463 0.0735 0.0499 0.2679 0.2979 0.3033 0.4077
LINE 0.2258 0.2557 0.2674 0.0854 0.0421 0.0289 0.1777 0.1927 0.1958 0.2628
LINE 0.1499 0.1730 0.1822 0.0572 0.0295 0.0205 0.1136 0.1241 0.1263 0.1894
LINE 0.3534 0.4096 0.4302 0.1386 0.0691 0.0473 0.2671 0.2936 0.2990 0.4090
LINE 0.1047 0.1385 0.1564 0.0453 0.0284 0.0221 0.0663 0.0775 0.0811 0.1544
N2V 0.2724 0.3040 0.3153 0.1025 0.0489 0.0327 0.2183 0.2353 0.2383 0.3083
N2V 0.4651 0.5194 0.5354 0.1730 0.0809 0.0533 0.3661 0.3951 0.3999 0.5194
M2V++ 0.0195 0.0214 0.0225 0.0052 0.0023 0.0015 0.0144 0.0147 0.0148 0.0312
M2V++ 0.0015 0.0031 0.0045 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0007 0.0009 0.0037
M2V++ 0.0687 0.0933 0.1058 0.0308 0.0195 0.0150 0.0409 0.0481 0.0503 0.1070
M2V++ 0.0198 0.0273 0.0321 0.0084 0.0054 0.0045 0.0113 0.0130 0.0135 0.0389
M2V++ 0.0243 0.0335 0.0380 0.0107 0.0068 0.0052 0.0136 0.0156 0.0161 0.0451
HRLHG 0.5034††† 0.5522††† 0.5664††† 0.1840††† 0.0832††† 0.0543††† 0.4033††† 0.4309††† 0.4353††† 0.5598†††
  • Significant test: , ††, †††

Table 2. Measures of different cross-language citation recommendation algorithms

For the proposed HRLHG, there were several important parameters and functions. To explore the effects of those model components, on the validation set, we compared the cross-language recommendation performances of proposed method under different model settings (by varying the examined model component while kept others fixed). We mainly focused on following components: (a) parameter for K-shorest paths based EM algorithm, we compared and selected the best from . (b) , relation type update factor function for RTUD training: Raw Count (RC), Length-Normalized Count (LNC) and Log-Discounted Count (LDC). (c) , RTUD update function for model training: Direct Sum (DS) and Sum with a Dumping Factor (SDF). (d) , parameter for of SDF form, we compared and selected the best from . (e) , the convergence percentage of EM algorithm, we tried over 90% to 10%. (f) Validation of relation type usefulness distributions (RTUD) and heterogeneous skip-gram (HS).

Note that, we conducted a comprehensive comparison experiment. For each examined model component, we tried multiple combinations of other components to avoid the possible bias brought by the component setting choices. For instance, we tested the impact of different under component combination ( = LNC, = DS and = 80% for RTUD training, while using ordinary skip-gram for embedding) and component combination ( = RC, = SDF with = 0.8 and = 20% for RTUD training, while using heterogeneous skip-gram for embedding), respectively. Because of the space limitation, we cannot report all results in this paper. The representative results on the validation set in terms of NDCG are depicted in Figure 5 (the other comparison groups showed the similar trends).

As we can see, considering more shortest paths in RTUD training brings a performance improvement. Length-normalized count (LNC) function could achieve best among the three choices. For , sum with a dumping factor (SDF) outperforms direct sum (DS). If we utilized SDF, a small could be superior than a great one. A possible explanation was that a small would penalize the dominated relation type usefulness probability to avoid overfitting. Generally, the algorithm performed better when more became stabilize in training iterations.

To validate the effectiveness of RTUD and heterogeneous skip-gram (HS), we also compared the performance of our model without them. As Figure 5 (f) showed, when RTUD was removed (treating each relation type equally when we conducted the hierarchical random walk) and HS was replaced by ordinary skip-gram, recommendation performance declined significantly. It is clear that RTUD and HS contribute to heterogeneous graph based random walk and recommendation performance significantly. More importantly, RTUD doesn’t need any human intervention or expert knowledge.

Based on the comparison and analysis, we selected a component setting (=3, = LNC, = SDF with = 0.2 and = 80% for RTUD training, while using heterogeneous skip-gram for vertex embedding), for further experiments with Baselines.

In skip-gram-based representation learning models, there were several common parameters (see Section 4.1). We also conducted a sensitivity analysis of HRLHG to these parameters. Figure 4 showed the their impacts on recommendation performance.

4.3. Comparison with Baselines

The cross-language citation recommendation performance results of different models were displayed in Table 2. Based on the experiment results, we had the following observations: (1) The proposed method significantly outperformed () other baseline models for all evaluation metrics. For instance, in terms of MAP@10, HRLHG achieved at least 10% improvement, comparing with all other 17 baselines. (2) The traditional models solely relied on one kind of information, i.e., machine translation based methods (EF, MT+LM) or citation relation based collaborative filtering approaches (CF and CF) cannot work as well as other network embedding based methods. (3) Although designed for homogeneous networks, by adding more types of vertexes and relations, the performance of DeepWalk (DW), LINE (LINE and LINE) and node2vec (N2V) had significant improvements over the ones using only citation networks (DW, LINE, LINE and N2V). This observation confirmed that heterogeneous information did enhance the models’ representation learning abilities. (4) metapath2vec++, designed for heterogeneous information networks, didn’t work well in the experiment. Even after applying learning to rank algorithms for integrating multiple metapath2vec++ models, the recommendation results were still not good. A possible explanation was that, for CCR task, no single metapath could cover the recommendation requirement. In addition, metapath based random walk was too strict to explore potential useful neighbourhoods for vertex representation learning. This observation also indicated that metapath2vec++ was depending on domain expert knowledge. If one cannot find the optimize metapath, the embedding performances were even worse than the homogeneous network representation learning models.

For each vertex type, HRLHG trained a relation type usefulness distribution. Based on the learned RTUD (available at project website), we can obtain the task-specified knowledge and improve the interpretability of proposed graph representation model. For instance, in the experimental CCR task, when a random walker reaches an English vertex, for the next move, the probabilities of (an English paper cites another English paper) and (an English paper has an English keyword) are higher than other relation types. This distribution navigates the walker to prefer to stay in the English repository rather than going back to the Chinese repository. By conducting the hierarchical random walk based on RTUD, the task specific knowledge can be further embedded into the representations learned by HRLHG.

In sum, for the CCR task, the proposed HRLHG method could automatically learn the relation type usefulness distributions for random walk navigation and the new method significantly outperformed the current text, homogeneous graph and heterogeneous graph embedding methods.

5. Related Work

Citation recommendation aims to recommend a list of citations (references) based on the similarity between the recommended papers and user profiles or samples of in-progress text. For instance, He et al. (He et al., 2010) proposed a probabilistic model to compute the relevance score based on contexts of a citation and its abstract. Jiang et al. (Jiang et al., 2015) generated a heterogeneous graph with various relations between topics and papers, and a supervised random walk was used for citation recommendation. From bibliographic viewpoint, Shi, Leskovec, and McFarland (Shi et al., 2010) developed citation projection graphs by investigating citations among publications cited by a given paper. Collaborative filtering algorithm can also be used for recommending citation papers (McNee et al., 2002). However, all of the prior studies focused on monolingual citation recommendation and cannot be directly used for cross-language citation recommendation. Intuitively, translation-based models can be addressed for cross-language recommendation. Recently, word embedding is a powerful approach for content representation (Mikolov et al., 2013a). Mikolov et al. (Mikolov et al., 2013b) transformed one language’s vector space into the space of another by utilizing a linear projection with a transformation matrix . This approach is effective for word translation, but the translation effect for scholarly text has not yet been demonstrated. Tang et al. (Tang et al., 2014) proposed bilingual embedding algorithms, which were efficient for cross-language context-aware citation recommendation task. However, they ignored the important citation relations in their work.

Network embedding algorithms, namely graph representation learning models, which aim to learn the low-dimensional feature representations of nodes in networks, are attracting increasing attention recently. Based on the techniques utilized in the model, we can briefly classify these algorithms into the following categories: the graph factorization based models, e.g., GraRep

(Cao et al., 2015)

; the shallow neural network based models, e.g., LINE

(Tang et al., 2015); the deep neural network based models, e.g., GCN (Kipf and Welling, 2016); and the random walk based method, e.g., DeepWalk (Perozzi et al., 2014), node2vec (Grover and Leskovec, 2016) and metapathvec++ (Dong et al., 2017). Technically the random walk based models are also using a shallow neural network. The main difference between random walk based models are the random walk algorithms used for generating the vertex sequences from the graph. A potential problem for GraRep and GCN is the space complexity (), and the computational costs of these models can be too expensive to embed the large complex networks in the real world. For instance, in this CCR experiment (a 200,000 vertexes level graph), the memory requirement of GraRep/GCN is over 600G.

In this study, we address the CCR problems and propose a novel method HRLHG to learn a mapping of publication to a low-dimensional joint embedding space for heterogeneous graph. HRLHG belongs to the random walk based network embedding models. A hierarchical random walk is proposed to cope the task-specified problem on heterogeneous graph. To the best of our knowledge, few existing studies have investigated the graph embedding approach for cross-language citation recommendation problem.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we propose a new problem: cross-language citation recommendation (CCR). Unlike existing scholarly recommendation problem, CCR enables cross language and cross repository recommendation. The proposed Hierarchical Representation Learning on Heterogeneous Graph (HRLHG) model can project a publication into a joint embedding space, which encapsulate both semantic and topological information. By training a set of relation type usefulness distributions (RTUD) on a heterogeneous graph, we propose a hierarchical two-level random walk: the global level is for graph schema navigation (task-specific); while the local level is for graph instance (task-independent) walking.

Unlike most prior heterogeneous graph mining methods, which employed expert-generated or rule-based ranking hypotheses to address recommendation problems, in a complex CCR graph, it can be difficult to exhaustively examine all of the potentially useful path types to generate metapaths. Furthermore, if a large number of random walk-based ranking functions are used, the computational cost can be prohibitive. Extensive experiments prove our hypothesis that the latent heterogeneous graph feature representations learned by HRLHG are able to improve cross-language citation recommendation performance (when comparing with 17 state-of-the-art baselines). In addition, the learned RTUD is able to reveal the latent task-specified knowledge, which is important to the interpretability of the proposed representation model.

In the future, we will validate the proposed method on other heterogeneous graph embedding based tasks, e.g., music recommendation or movie recommendation. Meanwhile, we will investigate more sophisticated method to generate RTUD. For instance, add personalization component to the algorithm, and enable personalized heterogeneous graph navigation for random walk optimization.

Acknowledgements.
The work is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (11401601, 61573028, 61472014), Guangdong Province Frontier and Key Technology Innovative Grant (2015B010110003, 2016B030307003), Health & Medical Collaborative Innovation Project of Guangzhou City, China (201604020003) and the Opening Project of State Key Laboratory of Digital Publishing Technology.

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