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CREATE: Cohort Retrieval Enhanced by Analysis of Text from Electronic Health Records using OMOP Common Data Model

01/22/2019
by   Sijia Liu, et al.
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Background: Widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) has enabled secondary use of EHR data for clinical research and healthcare delivery. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques have shown promise in their capability to extract the embedded information in unstructured clinical data, and information retrieval (IR) techniques provide flexible and scalable solutions that can augment the NLP systems for retrieving and ranking relevant records. Methods: In this paper, we present the implementation of Cohort Retrieval Enhanced by Analysis of Text from EHRs (CREATE), a cohort retrieval system that can execute textual cohort selection queries on both structured and unstructured EHR data. CREATE is a proof-of-concept system that leverages a combination of structured queries and IR techniques on NLP results to improve cohort retrieval performance while adopting the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) to enhance model portability. The NLP component empowered by cTAKES is used to extract CDM concepts from textual queries. We design a hierarchical index in Elasticsearch to support CDM concept search utilizing IR techniques and frameworks. Results: Our case study on 5 cohort identification queries evaluated using the IR metric, P@5 (Precision at 5) at both the patient-level and document-level, demonstrates that CREATE achieves an average P@5 of 0.90, which outperforms systems using only structured data or only unstructured data with average P@5s of 0.54 and 0.74, respectively.

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