COVID-19 Infection Map Generation and Detection from Chest X-Ray Images

by   Aysen Degerli, et al.

Computer-aided diagnosis has become a necessity for accurate and immediate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) detection to aid treatment and prevent the spread of the virus. Compared to other diagnosis methodologies, chest X-ray (CXR) imaging is an advantageous tool since it is fast, low-cost, and easily accessible. Thus, CXR has a great potential not only to help diagnose COVID-19 but also to track the progression of the disease. Numerous studies have proposed to use Deep Learning techniques for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, they have used very limited CXR image repositories for evaluation with a small number, a few hundreds, of COVID-19 samples. Moreover, these methods can neither localize nor grade the severity of COVID-19 infection. For this purpose, recent studies proposed to explore the activation maps of deep networks. However, they remain inaccurate for localizing the actual infestation making them unreliable for clinical use. This study proposes a novel method for the joint localization, severity grading, and detection of COVID-19 from CXR images by generating the so-called infection maps that can accurately localize and grade the severity of COVID-19 infection. To accomplish this, we have compiled the largest COVID-19 dataset up to date with 2951 COVID-19 CXR images, where the annotation of the ground-truth segmentation masks is performed on CXRs by a novel collaborative expert human-machine approach. Furthermore, we publicly release the first CXR dataset with the ground-truth segmentation masks of the COVID-19 infected regions. A detailed set of experiments show that state-of-the-art segmentation networks can learn to localize COVID-19 infection with an F1-score of 85.81 maps created by the previous methods. Finally, the proposed approach achieved a COVID-19 detection performance with 98.37


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