# Cosine and Computation

We are interested in solving decision problem ∃? t ∈ℕ, cos t θ = c where cosθ and c are algebraic numbers. We call this the cos t θ problem. This is an exploration of Diophantine equations with analytic functions. Polynomial, exponential with real base and cosine function are closely related to this decision problem: ∃ ? t ∈ℕ, u^T M^t v = 0 where u, v ∈ℚ^n, M ∈ℚ^n× n. This problem is also known as "Skolem problem" and is useful in verification of linear systems. Its decidability remains unknown. Single variable Diophantine equations with exponential function with real algebraic base and cos t θ function with θ a rational multiple of π is decidable. This idea is central in proving the decidability of Skolem problem when the eigenvalues of M are roots of real numbers. The main difficulty with the cases when eigenvalues are not roots of reals is that even for small order cases decidability requires application of trancendental number theory which does not scale for higher order cases. We provide a first attempt to overcome that by providing a PTIME algorithm for cos t θ when θ is not a rational multiple of π. We do so without using techniques from transcendental number theory. One of the main difficulty in Diophantine equations is being unable to use tools from calculus to solve this equation as the domain of variable is ℕ. We also provide an attempt to overcome that by providing reduction of Skolem problem to solving a one variable equation (which involves polynomials, exponentials with real bases and cos t θ function with t ranging over reals and θ∈ [0, π]) over reals.

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