# Component twin-width as a parameter for BINARY-CSP and its semiring generalisations

We investigate the fine-grained and the parameterized complexity of several generalizations of binary constraint satisfaction problems (BINARY-CSPs), that subsume variants of graph colouring problems. Our starting point is the observation that several algorithmic approaches that resulted in complexity upper bounds for these problems, share a common structure. We thus explore an algebraic approach relying on semirings that unifies different generalizations of BINARY-CSPs (such as the counting, the list, and the weighted versions), and that facilitates a general algorithmic approach to efficiently solving them. The latter is inspired by the (component) twin-width parameter introduced by Bonnet et al., which we generalize via edge-labelled graphs in order to formulate it to arbitrary binary constraints. We consider input instances with bounded component twin-width, as well as constraint templates of bounded component twin-width, and obtain an FPT algorithm as well as an improved, exponential-time algorithm, for broad classes of binary constraints. We illustrate the advantages of this framework by instantiating our general algorithmic approach on several classes of problems (e.g., the H-coloring problem and its variants), and showing that it improves the best complexity upper bounds in the literature for several well-known problems.

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