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Complexity of quantum circuits via sensitivity, magic, and coherence

by   Kaifeng Bu, et al.

Quantum circuit complexity-a measure of the minimum number of gates needed to implement a given unitary transformation-is a fundamental concept in quantum computation, with widespread applications ranging from determining the running time of quantum algorithms to understanding the physics of black holes. In this work, we study the complexity of quantum circuits using the notions of sensitivity, average sensitivity (also called influence), magic, and coherence. We characterize the set of unitaries with vanishing sensitivity and show that it coincides with the family of matchgates. Since matchgates are tractable quantum circuits, we have proved that sensitivity is necessary for a quantum speedup. As magic is another measure to quantify quantum advantage, it is interesting to understand the relation between magic and sensitivity. We do this by introducing a quantum version of the Fourier entropy-influence relation. Our results are pivotal for understanding the role of sensitivity, magic, and coherence in quantum computation.


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