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Coalgebras for Bisimulation of Weighted Automata over Semirings

by   Purandar Bhaduri, et al.

Weighted automata are a generalization of nondeterministic automata that associate a weight drawn from a semiring K with every transition and every state. Their behaviours can be formalized either as weighted language equivalence or weighted bisimulation. In this paper we explore the properties of weighted automata in the framework of coalgebras over (i) the category π–²π–¬π—ˆπ–½ of semimodules over a semiring K and K-linear maps, and (ii) the category 𝖲𝖾𝗍 of sets and maps. We show that the behavioural equivalences defined by the corresponding final coalgebras in these two cases characterize weighted language equivalence and weighted bisimulation, respectively. These results extend earlier work by Bonchi et al. using the category 𝖡𝖾𝖼𝗍 of vector spaces and linear maps as the underlying model for weighted automata with weights drawn from a field K. The key step in our work is generalizing the notions of linear relations and linear bisimulations of Boreale from vector spaces to semimodules using the concept of the kernel of a K-linear map in the sense of universal algebra. We also provide an abstract procedure for forward partition refinement for computing weighted language equivalence. Since for weighted automata defined over semirings the problem is undecidable in general, it is guaranteed to halt only in special cases. Although the results are similar to those of Bonchi et al, many of our proofs are new, especially for the coalgebra in π–²π–¬π—ˆπ–½ characterizing weighted language equivalence.


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