CMUA-Watermark: A Cross-Model Universal Adversarial Watermark for Combating Deepfakes

by   Hao Huang, et al.

Malicious application of deepfakes (i.e., technologies can generate target faces or face attributes) has posed a huge threat to our society. The fake multimedia content generated by deepfake models can harm the reputation and even threaten the property of the person who has been impersonated. Fortunately, the adversarial watermark could be used for combating deepfake models, leading them to generate distorted images. The existing methods require an individual training process for every facial image, to generate the adversarial watermark against a specific deepfake model, which are extremely inefficient. To address this problem, we propose a universal adversarial attack method on deepfake models, to generate a Cross-Model Universal Adversarial Watermark (CMUA-Watermark) that can protect thousands of facial images from multiple deepfake models. Specifically, we first propose a cross-model universal attack pipeline by attacking multiple deepfake models and combining gradients from these models iteratively. Then we introduce a batch-based method to alleviate the conflict of adversarial watermarks generated by different facial images. Finally, we design a more reasonable and comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating the effectiveness of the adversarial watermark. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMUA-Watermark can effectively distort the fake facial images generated by deepfake models and successfully protect facial images from deepfakes in real scenes.


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