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Certificate games

by   Sourav Chakraborty, et al.

We introduce and study Certificate Game complexity, a measure of complexity based on the probability of winning a game where two players are given inputs with different function values and are asked to output i such that x_i≠ y_i (zero-communication setting). We give upper and lower bounds for private coin, public coin, shared entanglement and non-signaling strategies, and give some separations. We show that complexity in the public coin model is upper bounded by Randomized query and Certificate complexity. On the other hand, it is lower bounded by fractional and randomized certificate complexity, making it a good candidate to prove strong lower bounds on randomized query complexity. Complexity in the private coin model is bounded from below by zero-error randomized query complexity. The quantum measure highlights an interesting and surprising difference between classical and quantum query models. Whereas the public coin certificate game complexity is bounded from above by randomized query complexity, the quantum certificate game complexity can be quadratically larger than quantum query complexity. We use non-signaling, a notion from quantum information, to give a lower bound of n on the quantum certificate game complexity of the OR function, whose quantum query complexity is Θ(√(n)), then go on to show that this “non-signaling bottleneck” applies to all functions with high sensitivity, block sensitivity or fractional block sensitivity. We consider the single-bit version of certificate games (inputs of the two players have Hamming distance 1). We prove that the single-bit version of certificate game complexity with shared randomness is equal to sensitivity up to constant factors, giving a new characterization of sensitivity. The single-bit version with private randomness is equal to λ^2, where λ is the spectral sensitivity.


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