Caviar: An E-graph Based TRS for Automatic Code Optimization

by   Smail Kourta, et al.
NYU college
Ecole nationale Supérieure d'Informatique

Term Rewriting Systems (TRSs) are used in compilers to simplify and prove expressions. State-of-the-art TRSs in compilers use a greedy algorithm that applies a set of rewriting rules in a predefined order (where some of the rules are not axiomatic). This leads to a loss of the ability to simplify certain expressions. E-graphs and equality saturation sidestep this issue by representing the different equivalent expressions in a compact manner from which the optimal expression can be extracted. While an e-graph-based TRS can be more powerful than a TRS that uses a greedy algorithm, it is slower because expressions may have a large or sometimes infinite number of equivalent expressions. Accelerating e-graph construction is crucial for making the use of e-graphs practical in compilers. In this paper, we present Caviar, an e-graph-based TRS for proving expressions within compilers. The main advantage of Caviar is its speed. It can prove expressions much faster than base e-graph TRSs. It relies on three techniques: 1) a technique that stops e-graphs from growing when the goal is reached, called Iteration Level Check; 2) a mechanism that balances exploration and exploitation in the equality saturation algorithm, called Pulsing Caviar; 3) a technique to stop e-graph construction before reaching saturation when a non-provable pattern is detected, called Non-Provable Patterns Detection (NPPD). We evaluate caviar on Halide, an optimizing compiler that relies on a greedy-algorithm-based TRS to simplify and prove its expressions. The proposed techniques allow Caviar to accelerate e-graph expansion for the task of proving expressions. They also allow Caviar to prove expressions that Halide's TRS cannot prove while being only 0.68x slower.


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