BeeFlow: Behavior Tree-based Serverless Workflow Modeling and Scheduling for Resource-Constrained Edge Clusters

by   Ke Luo, et al.

Serverless computing has gained popularity in edge computing due to its flexible features, including the pay-per-use pricing model, auto-scaling capabilities, and multi-tenancy support. Complex Serverless-based applications typically rely on Serverless workflows (also known as Serverless function orchestration) to express task execution logic, and numerous application- and system-level optimization techniques have been developed for Serverless workflow scheduling. However, there has been limited exploration of optimizing Serverless workflow scheduling in edge computing systems, particularly in high-density, resource-constrained environments such as system-on-chip clusters and single-board-computer clusters. In this work, we discover that existing Serverless workflow scheduling techniques typically assume models with limited expressiveness and cause significant resource contention. To address these issues, we propose modeling Serverless workflows using behavior trees, a novel and fundamentally different approach from existing directed-acyclic-graph- and state machine-based models. Behavior tree-based modeling allows for easy analysis without compromising workflow expressiveness. We further present observations derived from the inherent tree structure of behavior trees for contention-free function collections and awareness of exact and empirical concurrent function invocations. Based on these observations, we introduce BeeFlow, a behavior tree-based Serverless workflow system tailored for resource-constrained edge clusters. Experimental results demonstrate that BeeFlow achieves up to 3.2X speedup in a high-density, resource-constrained edge testbed and 2.5X speedup in a high-profile cloud testbed, compared with the state-of-the-art.


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