Beating Classical Impossibility of Position Verification

09/15/2021 ∙ by Jiahui Liu, et al. ∙ 0

Chandran et al. (SIAM J. Comput.'14) formally introduced the cryptographic task of position verification, where they also showed that it cannot be achieved by classical protocols. In this work, we initiate the study of position verification protocols with classical verifiers. We identify that proofs of quantumness (and thus computational assumptions) are necessary for such position verification protocols. For the other direction, we adapt the proof of quantumness protocol by Brakerski et al. (FOCS'18) to instantiate such a position verification protocol. As a result, we achieve classically verifiable position verification assuming the quantum hardness of Learning with Errors. Along the way, we develop the notion of 1-of-2 non-local soundness for the framework of 1-of-2 puzzles, first introduced by Radian and Sattath (AFT'19), which can be viewed as a computational unclonability property. We show that 1-of-2 non-local soundness follows from the standard 2-of-2 soundness, which could be of independent interest.

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