Automated Detection of Left Ventricle in Arterial Input Function Images for Inline Perfusion Mapping using Deep Learning: A study of 15,000 Patients

10/16/2019 ∙ by Hui Xue, et al. ∙ 27

Quantification of myocardial perfusion has the potential to improve detection of regional and global flow reduction. Significant effort has been made to automate the workflow, where one essential step is the arterial input function (AIF) extraction. Since failure here invalidates quantification, high accuracy is required. For this purpose, this study presents a robust AIF detection method using the convolutional neural net (CNN) model. CNN models were trained by assembling 25,027 scans (N=12,984 patients) from three hospitals, seven scanners. A test set of 5,721 scans (N=2,805 patients) evaluated model performance. The 2D+T AIF time series was inputted into CNN. Two variations were investigated: a) Two Classes (2CS) for background and foreground (LV mask); b) Three Classes (3CS) for background, foreground LV and RV. Final model was deployed on MR scanners via the Gadgetron InlineAI. Model loading time on MR scanner was  340ms and applying it took  180ms. The 3CS model successfully detect LV for 99.98 Dice ratio for 3CS was 0.87+/-0.08 with 92.0 ratio >0.75, while the 2CS model gave lower Dice of 0.82+/-0.22 (P<1e-5). Extracted AIF signals using CNN were further compared to manual ground-truth for foot-time, peak-time, first-pass duration, peak value and area-under-curve. No significant differences were found for all features (P>0.2). This study proposed, validated, and deployed a robust CNN solution to detect the LV for the extraction of the AIF signal used in fully automated perfusion flow mapping. A very large data cohort was assembled and resulting models were deployed to MR scanners for fully inline AI in clinical hospitals.

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