Attenuation Correction for Brain PET imaging using Deep Neural Network based on Dixon and ZTE MR images

by   Kuang Gong, et al.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality widely used in neuroscience studies. To obtain meaningful quantitative results from PET images, attenuation correction is necessary during image reconstruction. For PET/MR hybrid systems, PET attenuation is challenging as Magnetic Resonance (MR) images do not reflect attenuation coefficients directly. To address this issue, we present deep neural network methods to derive the continuous attenuation coefficients for brain PET imaging from MR images. With only Dixon MR images as the network input, the existing U-net structure was adopted and analysis using forty patient data sets shows it is superior than other Dixon based methods. When both Dixon and zero echo time (ZTE) images are available, apart from stacking multiple MR images along the U-net input channels, we have proposed a new network structure to extract the features from Dixon and ZTE images independently at early layers and combine them together at later layers. Quantitative analysis based on fourteen real patient data sets demonstrates that both network approaches can perform better than the standard methods, and the proposed network structure can further reduce the PET quantification error compared to the U-net structure with multiple inputs.


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