Assisted Probe Positioning for Ultrasound Guided Radiotherapy Using Image Sequence Classification

10/06/2020 ∙ by Alexander Grimwood, et al. ∙ 0

Effective transperineal ultrasound image guidance in prostate external beam radiotherapy requires consistent alignment between probe and prostate at each session during patient set-up. Probe placement and ultrasound image inter-pretation are manual tasks contingent upon operator skill, leading to interoperator uncertainties that degrade radiotherapy precision. We demonstrate a method for ensuring accurate probe placement through joint classification of images and probe position data. Using a multi-input multi-task algorithm, spatial coordinate data from an optically tracked ultrasound probe is combined with an image clas-sifier using a recurrent neural network to generate two sets of predictions in real-time. The first set identifies relevant prostate anatomy visible in the field of view using the classes: outside prostate, prostate periphery, prostate centre. The second set recommends a probe angular adjustment to achieve alignment between the probe and prostate centre with the classes: move left, move right, stop. The algo-rithm was trained and tested on 9,743 clinical images from 61 treatment sessions across 32 patients. We evaluated classification accuracy against class labels de-rived from three experienced observers at 2/3 and 3/3 agreement thresholds. For images with unanimous consensus between observers, anatomical classification accuracy was 97.2 probe alignment within a mean (standard deviation) range of 3.7^∘ (1.2^∘) from angle labels with full observer consensus, comparable to the 2.8^∘ (2.6^∘) mean interobserver range. We propose such an algorithm could assist ra-diotherapy practitioners with limited experience of ultrasound image interpreta-tion by providing effective real-time feedback during patient set-up.

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