Analyzing Differentiable Fuzzy Logic Operators

by   Emile van Krieken, et al.

In recent years there has been a push to integrate symbolic AI and deep learning, as it is argued that the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are complementary. One such trend in the literature are weakly supervised learning techniques that use operators from fuzzy logics. They employ prior background knowledge described in logic to benefit the training of a neural network from unlabeled and noisy data. By interpreting logical symbols using neural networks, this background knowledge can be added to regular loss functions used in deep learning to integrate reasoning and learning. In this paper, we analyze how a large collection of logical operators from the fuzzy logic literature behave in a differentiable setting. We find large differences between the formal properties of these operators that are of crucial importance in a differentiable learning setting. We show that many of these operators, including some of the best known, are highly unsuitable for use in a differentiable learning setting. A further finding concerns the treatment of implication in these fuzzy logics, with a strong imbalance between gradients driven by the antecedent and the consequent of the implication. Finally, we empirically show that it is possible to use Differentiable Fuzzy Logics for semi-supervised learning. However, to achieve the most significant performance improvement over a supervised baseline, we have to resort to non-standard combinations of logical operators which perform well in learning, but which no longer satisfy the usual logical laws. We end with a discussion on extensions to large-scale problems.


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