An Efficient Normalisation Procedure for Linear Temporal Logic and Very Weak Alternating Automata

05/01/2020 βˆ™ by Salomon Sickert, et al. βˆ™ 0 βˆ™

In the mid 80s, Lichtenstein, Pnueli, and Zuck proved a classical theorem stating that every formula of Past LTL (the extension of LTL with past operators) is equivalent to a formula of the form β‹€_i=1^n 𝐆𝐅φ_i βˆ¨π…π†Οˆ_i, where Ο†_i and ψ_i contain only past operators. Some years later, Chang, Manna, and Pnueli built on this result to derive a similar normal form for LTL. Both normalisation procedures have a non-elementary worst-case blow-up, and follow an involved path from formulas to counter-free automata to star-free regular expressions and back to formulas. We improve on both points. We present a direct and purely syntactic normalisation procedure for LTL yielding a normal form, comparable to the one by Chang, Manna, and Pnueli, that has only a single exponential blow-up. As an application, we derive a simple algorithm to translate LTL into deterministic Rabin automata. The algorithm normalises the formula, translates it into a special very weak alternating automaton, and applies a simple determinisation procedure, valid only for these special automata.



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