In this paper, drawing intuition from the Turing test, we propose using adversarial training for open-domain dialogue generation: the system is trained to produce sequences that are indistinguishable from human-generated dialogue utterances. We cast the task as a reinforcement learning (RL) problem where we jointly train two systems, a generative model to produce response sequences, and a discriminator---analagous to the human evaluator in the Turing test--- to distinguish between the human-generated dialogues and the machine-generated ones. The outputs from the discriminator are then used as rewards for the generative model, pushing the system to generate dialogues that mostly resemble human dialogues. In addition to adversarial training we describe a model for adversarial evaluation that uses success in fooling an adversary as a dialogue evaluation metric, while avoiding a number of potential pitfalls. Experimental results on several metrics, including adversarial evaluation, demonstrate that the adversarially-trained system generates higher-quality responses than previous baselines.READ FULL TEXT VIEW PDF
The design of better automated dialogue evaluation metrics offers the
This paper presents a new adversarial learning method for generative
The natural language generation (NLG) module in a task-oriented dialogue...
Generating qualitative responses has always been a challenge for
The recent application of RNN encoder-decoder models has resulted in
We present two categories of model-agnostic adversarial strategies that
The performance of adversarial dialogue generation models relies on the
dialogue generation with seqGAN
Open domain dialogue generation Ritter et al. (2011); Sordoni et al. (2015); Xu et al. (2016); Wen et al. (2016); Li et al. (2016b); Serban et al. (2016c, 2017) aims at generating meaningful and coherent dialogue responses given the dialogue history. Prior systems, e.g., phrase-based machine translation systems Ritter et al. (2011); Sordoni et al. (2015) or end-to-end neural systems Shang et al. (2015); Vinyals and Le (2015); Li et al. (2016a); Yao et al. (2015); Luan et al. (2016)
approximate such a goal by predicting the next dialogue utterance given the dialogue history using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) objective. Despite its success, this over-simplified training objective leads to problems: responses are dull, genericSordoni et al. (2015); Serban et al. (2016a); Li et al. (2016a), repetitive, and short-sighted Li et al. (2016d).
Solutions to these problems require answering a few fundamental questions: what are the crucial aspects that characterize an ideal conversation, how can we quantitatively measure them, and how can we incorporate them into a machine learning system? For example, li2016deep manually define three ideal dialogue properties (ease of answering, informativeness and coherence) and use a reinforcement-learning framework to train the model to generate highly rewarded responses. yu2016strategy use keyword retrieval confidence as a reward. However, it is widely acknowledged that manually defined reward functions can’t possibly cover all crucial aspects and can lead to suboptimal generated utterances.
A good dialogue model should generate utterances indistinguishable from human dialogues. Such a goal suggests a training objective resembling the idea of the Turing test Turing (1950). We borrow the idea of adversarial training Goodfellow et al. (2014); Denton et al. (2015)
in computer vision, in which we jointly train two models, a generator (a neuralSeq2Seq
model) that defines the probability of generating a dialogue sequence, and a discriminator that labels dialogues as human-generated or machine-generated. This discriminator is analogous to the evaluator in the Turing test. We cast the task as a reinforcement learning problem, in which the quality of machine-generated utterances is measured by its ability to fool the discriminator into believing that it is a human-generated one. The output from the discriminator is used as a reward to the generator, pushing it to generate utterances indistinguishable from human-generated dialogues.
The idea of a Turing test—employing an evaluator to distinguish machine-generated texts from human-generated ones—can be applied not only to training but also testing, where it goes by the name of adversarial evaluation. Adversarial evaluation was first employed in bowman2015generating to evaluate sentence generation quality, and preliminarily studied for dialogue generation by kannan. In this paper, we discuss potential pitfalls of adversarial evaluations and necessary steps to avoid them and make evaluation reliable.
Experimental results demonstrate that our approach produces more interactive, interesting, and non-repetitive responses than standard Seq2Seq models trained using the MLE objective function.
Response generation for dialogue can be viewed as a source-to-target transduction problem. ritter2011data frame the generation problem as a machine translation problem. sordoni2015neural improved Ritter et al.’s system by rescoring the outputs of a phrasal MT-based conversation system with a neural model incorporating prior context. Recent progress in Seq2Seq models have inspired several efforts Vinyals and Le (2015); Serban et al. (2016a, d); Luan et al. (2016)
to build end-to-end conversational systems that first apply an encoder to map a message to a distributed vector representing its meaning and then generate a response from the vector.
Our work adapts the encoder-decoder model to RL training, and can thus be viewed as an extension of li2016deep, but with more general RL rewards. li2016deep simulate dialogues between two virtual agents, using policy gradient methods to reward sequences that display three useful conversational properties: informativity, coherence, and ease of answering. Our work is also related to recent efforts to integrate the Seq2Seq and reinforcement learning paradigms, drawing on the advantages of both Wen et al. (2016). For example, Su combine reinforcement learning with neural generation on tasks with real users. RE train an end-to-end RL dialogue model using human users.
Dialogue quality is traditionally evaluated (Sordoni et al., 2015, e.g.) using word-overlap metrics such as BLEU and METEOR scores used for machine translation. Some recent work Liu et al. (2016) has started to look at more flexible and reliable evaluation metrics such as human-rating prediction Lowe et al. (2017) and next utterance classification Lowe et al. (2016).
The idea of generative adversarial networks has enjoyed great success in computer vision Radford et al. (2015); Chen et al. (2016a); Salimans et al. (2016). Training is formalized as a game in which the generative model is trained to generate outputs to fool the discriminator; the technique has been successfully applied to image generation.
However, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not achieved comparable success in NLP. This is due to the fact that unlike in vision, text generation is discrete, which makes the error outputted from the discriminator hard to backpropagate to the generator. Some recent work has begun to address this issue: lamb2016professor propose providing the discriminator with the intermediate hidden vectors of the generator rather than its sequence outputs. Such a strategy makes the system differentiable and achieves promising results in tasks like character-level language modeling and handwriting generation. yu2016seqgan use policy gradient reinforcement learning to backpropagate the error from the discriminator, showing improvement in multiple generation tasks such as poem generation, speech language generation and music generation. Outside of sequence generation, chen2016adversarial apply the idea of adversarial training to sentiment analysis and zhang2017aspect apply the idea to domain adaptation tasks.
Our work is distantly related to recent work that formalizes sequence generation as an action-taking problem in reinforcement learning. ranzato2015sequence train RNN decoders in a Seq2Seq model using policy gradient to obtain competitive machine translation results. bahdanau2016actor take this a step further by training an actor-critic RL model for machine translation. Also related is recent work Shen et al. (2016); Wiseman and Rush (2016) to address the issues of exposure bias and loss-evaluation mismatch in neural translation.
In this section, we describe in detail the components of the proposed adversarial reinforcement learning model. The problem can be framed as follows: given a dialogue history consisting of a sequence of dialogue utterances,111We approximate the dialogue history using the concatenation of two preceding utterances. We found that using more than 2 context utterances yields very tiny performance improvements for Seq2Seq models. the model needs to generate a response
. We view the process of sentence generation as a sequence of actions that are taken according to a policy defined by an encoder-decoder recurrent neural network.
The adversarial REINFORCE algorithm consists of two components: a generative model and a discriminative model .
The generative model defines the policy that generates a response given dialogue history . It takes a form similar to Seq2Seq models, which first map the source input to a vector representation using a recurrent net and then compute the probability of generating each token in the target using a softmax function.
The discriminative model
is a binary classifier that takes as input a sequence of dialogue utterancesand outputs a label indicating whether the input is generated by humans or machines. The input dialogue is encoded into a vector representation using a hierarchical encoder Li et al. (2015); Serban et al. (2016b),222To be specific, each utterance or is mapped to a vector representation or using LSTM Hochreiter and Schmidhuber (1997). Another LSTM is put on sentence level, mapping the context dialogue sequence to a single representation. which is then fed to a 2-class softmax function, returning the probability of the input dialogue episode being a machine-generated dialogue (denoted ) or a human-generated dialogue (denoted ).
The key idea of the system is to encourage the generator to generate utterances that are indistinguishable from human generated dialogues. We use policy gradient methods to achieve such a goal, in which the score of current utterances being human-generated ones assigned by the discriminator (i.e., ) is used as a reward for the generator, which is trained to maximize the expected reward of generated utterance(s) using the REINFORCE algorithm Williams (1992):
Given the input dialogue history , the bot generates a dialogue utterance by sampling from the policy. The concatenation of the generated utterance and the input is fed to the discriminator. The gradient of (1) is approximated using the likelihood ratio trick Williams (1992); Glynn (1990); Aleksandrov et al. (1968):
where denotes the probability of the generated responses.
denotes the baseline value to reduce the variance of the estimate while keeping it unbiased.333 Like ranzato2015sequence, we train another neural network model (the critic) to estimate the value (or future reward) of current state (i.e., the dialogue history) under the current policy . The critic network takes as input the dialogue history, transforms it to a vector representation using a hierarchical network and maps the representation to a scalar. The network is optimized based on the mean squared loss between the estimated reward and the real reward. The discriminator is simultaneously updated with the human generated dialogue that contains dialogue history as a positive example and the machine-generated dialogue as a negative example.
The REINFORCE algorithm described has the disadvantage that the expectation of the reward is approximated by only one sample, and the reward associated with this sample (i.e., in Eq(2)) is used for all actions (the generation of each token) in the generated sequence. Suppose, for example, the input history is what’s your name, the human-generated response is I am John, and the machine-generated response is I don’t know. The vanilla REINFORCE model assigns the same negative reward to all tokens within the human-generated response (i.e., I, don’t, know), whereas proper credit assignment in training would give separate rewards, most likely a neutral reward for the token I, and negative rewards to don’t and know. We call this reward for every generation step, abbreviated REGS.
Rewards for intermediate steps or partially decoded sequences are thus necessary. Unfortunately, the discriminator is trained to assign scores to fully generated sequences, but not partially decoded ones. We propose two strategies for computing intermediate step rewards by (1) using Monte Carlo (MC) search and (2) training a discriminator that is able to assign rewards to partially decoded sequences.
In (1) Monte Carlo search, given a partially decoded , the model keeps sampling tokens from the distribution until the decoding finishes. Such a process is repeated (set to 5) times and the generated sequences will share a common prefix . These sequences are fed to the discriminator, the average score of which is used as a reward for the . A similar strategy is adopted in yu2016seqgan. The downside of MC is that it requires repeating the sampling process for each prefix of each sequence and is thus significantly time-consuming.444Consider one target sequence with length 20, we need to sample 5*20=100 full sequences to get rewards for all intermediate steps. Training one batch with 128 examples roughly takes roughly 1 min on a single GPU, which is computationally intractable considering the size of the dialogue data we have. We thus parallelize the sampling processes, distributing jobs across 8 GPUs.
In (2), we directly train a discriminator that is able to assign rewards to both fully and partially decoded sequences. We break the generated sequences into partial sequences, namely and and use all instances in as positive examples and instances as negative examples. The problem with such a strategy is that earlier actions in a sequence are shared among multiple training examples for the discriminator (for example, token is contained in all partially generated sequences, which results in overfitting. To mitigate this problem, we adopt a strategy similar to when training value networks in AlphaGo Silver et al. (2016), in which for each collection of subsequences of , we randomly sample only one example from and one example from , which are treated as positive and negative examples to update the discriminator. Compared with the Monte Carlo search model, this strategy is significantly more time-effective, but comes with the weakness that the discriminator becomes less accurate after partially decoded sequences are added in as training examples. We find that the MC model performs better when training time is less of an issue.
For each partially-generated sequence , the discriminator gives a classification score . We compute the baseline using a similar model to the vanilla REINFORCE model. This yields the following gradient to update the generator:
Practically, we find that updating the generative model only using Eq. 1 leads to unstable training for both vanilla Reinforce and REGS, with the perplexity value skyrocketing after training the model for a few hours (even when the generator is initialized using a pre-trained Seq2Seq
model). The reason this happens is that the generative model can only be indirectly exposed to the gold-standard target sequences through the reward passed back from the discriminator, and this reward is used to promote or discourage its (the generator’s) own generated sequences. Such a training strategy is fragile: once the generator (accidentally) deteriorates in some training batches and the discriminator consequently does an extremely good job in recognizing sequences from the generator, the generator immediately gets lost. It knows that its generated sequences are bad based on the rewards outputted from the discriminator, but it does not know what sequences are good and how to push itself to generate these good sequences (the odds of generating a good response from random sampling are minute, due to the vast size of the space of possible sequences). Loss of the reward signal leads to a breakdown in the training process.
To alleviate this issue and give the generator more direct access to the gold-standard targets, we propose also feeding human generated responses to the generator for model updates. The most straightforward strategy is for the discriminator to automatically assign a reward of 1 (or other positive values) to the human generated responses and for the generator to use this reward to update itself on human generated examples. This can be seen as having a teacher intervene with the generator some fraction of the time and force it to generate the true responses, an approach that is similar to the professor-forcing algorithm of lamb2016professor.
A closer look reveals that this modification is the same as the standard training of Seq2Seq models, making the final training alternately update the Seq2Seq model using the adversarial objective and the MLE objective. One can think of the professor-forcing model as a regularizer to regulate the generator once it starts deviating from the training dataset.
We also propose another workaround, in which the discriminator first assigns a reward to a human generated example using its own model, and the generator then updates itself using this reward on the human generated example only if the reward is larger than the baseline value. Such a strategy has the advantage that different weights for model updates are assigned to different human generated examples (in the form of different reward values produced by the generator) and that human generated examples are always associated with non-negative weights.
A sketch of the proposed model is shown in Figure 1.
We first pre-train the generative model by predicting target sequences given the dialogue history. We trained a Seq2Seq model Sutskever et al. (2014) with an attention mechanism Bahdanau et al. (2015); Luong et al. (2015)
on the OpenSubtitles dataset. We followed protocols recommended by sutskever2014sequence, such as gradient clipping, mini-batch and learning rate decay. We also pre-train the discriminator. To generate negative examples, we decode part of the training data. Half of the negative examples are generated using beam-search with mutual information reranking as described in li2015diversity, and the other half is generated from sampling.
For data processing, model training and decoding (both the proposed adversarial training model and the standard Seq2Seq models), we employ a few strategies that improve response quality, including: (2) Remove training examples with length of responses shorter than a threshold (set to 5). We find that this significantly improves the general response quality.555To compensate for the loss of short responses, one can train a separate model using short sequences. (2) Instead of using the same learning rate for all examples, using a weighted learning rate that considers the average tf-idf score for tokens within the response. Such a strategy decreases the influence from dull and generic utterances.666We treat each sentence as a document. Stop words are removed. Learning rates are normalized within one batch. For example, suppose , , …, , … , denote the tf-idf scores for sentences within current batch and denotes the original learning rate. The learning rate for sentence with index is . To avoid exploding learning rates for sequences with extremely rare words, the tf-idf score of a sentence is capped at times the minimum tf-idf score in the current batch. is empirically chosen and is set to 3. (3) Penalizing intra-sibling ranking when doing beam search decoding to promote N-best list diversity as described in li2016simple. (4) Penalizing word types (stop words excluded) that have already been generated. Such a strategy dramatically decreases the rate of repetitive responses such as no. no. no. no. no. or contradictory responses such as I don’t like oranges but i like oranges.
In this section, we discuss strategies for successful adversarial evaluation. Note that the proposed adversarial training and adversarial evaluation are separate procedures. They are independent of each other and share no common parameters.
The idea of adversarial evaluation, first proposed by bowman2015generating, is to train a discriminant function to separate generated and true sentences, in an attempt to evaluate the model’s sentence generation capability. The idea has been preliminarily studied by kannan in the context of dialogue generation. Adversarial evaluation also resembles the idea of the Turing test, which requires a human evaluator to distinguish machine-generated texts from human-generated ones. Since it is time-consuming and costly to ask a human to talk to a model and give judgements, we train a machine evaluator in place of the human evaluator to distinguish the human dialogues and machine dialogues, and we use it to measure the general quality of the generated responses.
Adversarial evaluation involves both training and testing. At training time, the evaluator is trained to label dialogues as machine-generated (negative) or human-generated (positive). At test time, the trained evaluator is evaluated on a held-out dataset. If the human-generated dialogues and machine-generated ones are indistinguishable, the model will achieve 50 percent accuracy at test time.
We define Adversarial Success (AdverSuc for short) to be the fraction of instances in which a model is capable of fooling the evaluator. AdverSuc is the difference between 1 and the accuracy achieved by the evaluator. Higher values of AdverSuc for a dialogue generation model are better.
One caveat with the adversarial evaluation methods is that they are model-dependent. We approximate the human evaluator in the Turing test with an automatic evaluator and assume that the evaluator is perfect: low accuracy of the discriminator should indicate high quality of the responses, since we interpret this to mean the generated responses are indistinguishable from the human ones. Unfortunately, there is another factor that can lead to low discriminative accuracy: a poor discriminative model. Consider a discriminator that always gives random labels or always gives the same label. Such an evaluator always yields a high AdverSuc value of 0.5. bowman2015generating propose two different discriminator models separately using unigram features and neural features. It is hard to tell which feature set is more reliable. The standard strategy of testing the model on a held-out development set is not suited to this case, since a model that overfits the development set is necessarily superior.
To deal with this issue, we propose setting up a few manually-invented situations to test the ability of the automatic evaluator. This is akin to setting up examinations to test the ability of the human evaluator in the Turing test. We report not only the AdverSuc values, but also the scores that the evaluator achieves in these manually-designed test cases, indicating how much we can trust the reported AdverSuc. We develop scenarios in which we know in advance how a perfect evaluator should behave, and then compare AdverSuc from a discriminative model with the gold-standard AdverSuc. Scenarios we design include:
We use human-generated dialogues as both positive examples and negative examples. A perfect evaluator should give an AdverSuc of (accuracy ), which is the gold-standard result.
We use machine-generated dialogues as both positive examples and negative examples. A perfect evaluator should give an AdverSuc of (accuracy ).
We use original human-generated dialogues as positive examples and dialogues consisting of random utterances as negative examples. A perfect evaluator should give an AdverSuc of (accuracy ).
We use original human-generated dialogues as positive examples and dialogues with responses replaced by the utterances immediately following the true responses. A perfect evaluation should give an AdverSuc of (accuracy ).
The evaluator reliability error
(ERE) is the average deviation of an evaluator’s adversarial error from the gold-standard error in the above tasks, with equal weight for each task. The smaller the error, the more reliable the evaluator is.
|Input||tell me … how long have you had this falling sickness ?|
|Vanilla-MLE||i ’m not a doctor .|
|Vanilla-Sample||well everything you did was totally untrue .|
|REINFORCE||i don ’t know how long it ’s been .|
|REGS Monte Carlo||A few months, I guess .|
|Input||so i had the doctors test sammy ’s response to conditioning .|
|Vanilla-MLE||sammy wrote the test sammy wrote the test .|
|Vanilla-Sample||objects pick objects up objects objects objects objects objects|
|REINFORCE||i ’m not sure that ’s relevant .|
|REGS Monte Carlo||so he took the pills .|
|Input||what are you going to do ?|
|Vanilla-MLE||i ’m going to the movies .|
|Vanilla-Sample||get him outta here first !|
|REINFORCE||i ’m going to get you .|
|REGS Monte Carlo||i ’m going to get you a new car .|
|Input||they fear your power your intellect .|
|Vanilla-MLE||you ’re the only one who knows what ’s going on .|
|Vanilla-Sample||when they are conquered and you surrender they will control all of us .|
|REINFORCE||i ’m afraid i ’m not ready yet .|
|REGS Monte Carlo||i ’m not afraid of your power .|
Evaluator reliability error uses scenarios constructed from human-generated dialogues to assess feature or hyper-parameter choice for the evaluator. Unfortunately, no machine-generated responses are involved in the ERE metric. The following example illustrates the serious weakness resulting from this strategy: as will be shown in the experiment section, when inputs are decoded using greedy or beam search models, most generation systems to date yield an adversarial success less than 10 percent (evaluator accuracy 90 percent). But when using sampling for decoding, the adversarial success skyrockets to around 40 percent,777Similar results are also reported in kannan. only 10 percent less than what’s needed to pass the Turing test. A close look at the decoded sequences using sampling tells a different story: the responses from sampling are sometimes incoherent, irrelevant or even ungrammatical.
We thus propose an additional sanity check, in which we report the accuracy of distinguishing between machine-generated responses and randomly sampled responses (machine-vs-random for short). This resembles the N-choose-1 metric described in shao15. Higher accuracy indicates that the generated responses are distinguishable from randomly sampled human responses, indicating that the generative model is not fooling the generator simply by introducing randomness. As we will show in Sec. 5, using sampling results in high AdverSuc values but low machine-vs-random accuracy.
In this section, we detail experimental results on adversarial success and human evaluation.
We first test
adversarial evaluation models with different
feature sets and
model architectures for reliability, as measured by evaluator reliability error (ERE).
We explore the following models:
(1) SVM+Unigram: SVM using unigram features.888Trained using the SVM-Light package Joachims (2002).
A multi-utterance dialogue (i.e., input messages and responses) is transformed to a unigram representation; (2)
a neural classification model with
a softmax function that takes as input the concatenation of representations of constituent dialogues sentences;
(3) Hierarchical Neural:
a hierarchical encoder
with a structure similar to the discriminator used in the reinforcement; and
a SVM model that uses the following features: unigrams, neural representations of dialogues obtained by the neural model trained using strategy (3),999 The representation before the softmax layer.
The representation before the softmax layer.the forward likelihood and backward likelihood .
ERE scores obtained by different models are reported in Table 2. As can be seen, the hierarchical neural evaluator (model 3) is more reliable than simply concatenating the sentence-level representations (model 2). Using the combination of neural features and lexicalized features yields the most reliable evaluator. For the rest of this section, we report results obtained by the Hierarchical Neural setting due to its end-to-end nature, despite its inferiority to SVM+Neural+multil-features.
Table 3 presents AdverSuc values for different models, along with machine-vs-random accuracy described in Section 4.3. Higher values of AdverSuc and machine-vs-random are better.
Baselines we consider include standard Seq2Seq models using greedy decoding (MLE-greedy), beam-search (MLE+BS) and sampling, as well as the mutual information reranking model of li2015diversity with two algorithmic variations: (1) MMI+, in which a large N-best list is first generated using a pre-trained Seq2Seq model and then reranked by the backward probability and (2) MMI, in which language model probability is penalized during decoding.
Results are shown in Table 3. What first stands out is decoding using sampling (as discussed in Section 4.3), achieving a significantly higher AdverSuc number than all the rest models. However, this does not indicate the superiority of the sampling decoding model, since the machine-vs-random accuracy is at the same time significantly lower. This means that sampled responses based on Seq2Seq models are not only hard for an evaluator to distinguish from real human responses, but also from randomly sampled responses. A similar, though much less extreme, effect is observed for MMI, which has an AdverSuc value slightly higher than Adver-Reinforce, but a significantly lower machine-vs-random score.
By comparing different baselines, we find that MMI+ is better than MLE-greedy, which is in turn better than MLE+BS. This result is in line with human-evaluation results from li2015diversity. The two proposed adversarial algorithms achieve better performance than the baselines. We expect this to be the case, since the adversarial algorithms are trained on an objective function more similar to the evaluation metric (i.e., adversarial success). REGS performs slightly better than the vanilla REINFORCE algorithm.
For human evaluation, we follow protocols defined in li2016deep, employing crowdsourced judges to evaluate a random sample of 200 items. We present both an input message and the generated outputs to 3 judges and ask them to decide which of the two outputs is better (single-turn general quality). Ties are permitted. Identical strings are assigned the same score. We also present the judges with multi-turn conversations simulated between the two agents. Each conversation consists of 3 turns. Results are presented in Table 4. We observe a significant quality improvement on both single-turn quality and multi-turn quality from the proposed adversarial model. It is worth noting that the reinforcement learning system described in li2016deep, which simulates conversations between two bots and is trained based on manually designed reward functions, only improves multi-turn dialogue quality, while the model described in this paper improves both single-turn and multi-turn dialogue generation quality. This confirms that the reward adopted in adversarial training is more general, natural and effective in training dialogue systems.
In this paper, drawing intuitions from the Turing test, we propose using an adversarial training approach for response generation. We cast the model in the framework of reinforcement learning and train a generator based on the signal from a discriminator to generate response sequences indistinguishable from human-generated dialogues. We observe clear performance improvements on multiple metrics from the adversarial training strategy.
The adversarial training model should theoretically benefit a variety of generation tasks in NLP. Unfortunately, in preliminary experiments applying the same training paradigm to machine translation, we did not observe a clear performance boost. We conjecture that this is because the adversarial training strategy
is more beneficial to
tasks in which there is
a big discrepancy between the distributions of the generated sequences and the reference target sequences. In other words, the adversarial approach is more beneficial on tasks in which entropy of the targets is high. Exploring this relationship further is a focus of our future work.
The authors thank Michel Galley, Bill Dolan, Chris Brockett, Jianfeng Gao and other members of the NLP group at Microsoft Research, as well as Sumit Chopra and Marc’Aurelio Ranzato from Facebook AI Research for helpful discussions and comments. Jiwei Li is supported by a Facebook Fellowship, which we gratefully acknowledge. This work is also partially supported by the NSF under award IIS-1514268, and the DARPA Communicating with Computers (CwC) program under ARO prime contract no. W911NF- 15-1-0462, IIS-1464128. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of DARPA, the NSF, or Facebook.
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