Accelerated Policy Evaluation: Learning Adversarial Environments with Adaptive Importance Sampling

06/19/2021
by   Mengdi Xu, et al.
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The evaluation of rare but high-stakes events remains one of the main difficulties in obtaining reliable policies from intelligent agents, especially in large or continuous state/action spaces where limited scalability enforces the use of a prohibitively large number of testing iterations. On the other hand, a biased or inaccurate policy evaluation in a safety-critical system could potentially cause unexpected catastrophic failures during deployment. In this paper, we propose the Accelerated Policy Evaluation (APE) method, which simultaneously uncovers rare events and estimates the rare event probability in Markov decision processes. The APE method treats the environment nature as an adversarial agent and learns towards, through adaptive importance sampling, the zero-variance sampling distribution for the policy evaluation. Moreover, APE is scalable to large discrete or continuous spaces by incorporating function approximators. We investigate the convergence properties of proposed algorithms under suitable regularity conditions. Our empirical studies show that APE estimates rare event probability with a smaller variance while only using orders of magnitude fewer samples compared to baseline methods in both multi-agent and single-agent environments.

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