A Two-step-training Deep Learning Framework for Real-time Computational Imaging without Physics Priors

01/10/2020 ∙ by Ruibo Shang, et al. ∙ 0

Deep learning (DL) is a powerful tool in computational imaging for many applications. A common strategy is to reconstruct a preliminary image as the input of a neural network to achieve an optimized image. Usually, the preliminary image is acquired with the prior knowledge of the model. One outstanding challenge, however, is that the model is sometimes difficult to acquire with high accuracy. In this work, a two-step-training DL (TST-DL) framework is proposed for real-time computational imaging without prior knowledge of the model. A single fully-connected layer (FCL) is trained to directly learn the model with the raw measurement data as input and the image as output. Then, this pre-trained FCL is fixed and connected with an un-trained deep convolutional network for a second-step training to improve the output image fidelity. This approach has three main advantages. First, no prior knowledge of the model is required since the first-step training is to directly learn the model. Second, real-time imaging can be achieved since the raw measurement data is directly used as the input to the model. Third, it can handle any dimension of the network input and solve the input-output dimension mismatch issues which arise in convolutional neural networks. We demonstrate this framework in the applications of single-pixel imaging and photoacoustic imaging for linear model cases. The results are quantitatively compared with those from other DL frameworks and model-based optimization approaches. Noise robustness and the required size of the training dataset are studied for this framework. We further extend this concept to nonlinear models in the application of image de-autocorrelation by using multiple FCLs in the first-step training. Overall, this TST-DL framework is widely applicable to many computational imaging techniques for real-time image reconstruction without the physics priors.

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