A quantum algorithm for training wide and deep classical neural networks

07/19/2021 ∙ by Alexander Zlokapa, et al. ∙ 10

Given the success of deep learning in classical machine learning, quantum algorithms for traditional neural network architectures may provide one of the most promising settings for quantum machine learning. Considering a fully-connected feedforward neural network, we show that conditions amenable to classical trainability via gradient descent coincide with those necessary for efficiently solving quantum linear systems. We propose a quantum algorithm to approximately train a wide and deep neural network up to O(1/n) error for a training set of size n by performing sparse matrix inversion in O(log n) time. To achieve an end-to-end exponential speedup over gradient descent, the data distribution must permit efficient state preparation and readout. We numerically demonstrate that the MNIST image dataset satisfies such conditions; moreover, the quantum algorithm matches the accuracy of the fully-connected network. Beyond the proven architecture, we provide empirical evidence for O(log n) training of a convolutional neural network with pooling.



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