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A Probabilistic Framework for Discriminative and Neuro-Symbolic Semi-Supervised Learning

by   Carl Allen, et al.

In semi-supervised learning (SSL), a rule to predict labels y for data x is learned from labelled data (x^l,y^l) and unlabelled samples x^u. Strong progress has been made by combining a variety of methods, some of which pertain to p(x), e.g. data augmentation that generates artificial samples from true x; whilst others relate to model outputs p(y|x), e.g. regularising predictions on unlabelled data to minimise entropy or induce mutual exclusivity. Focusing on the latter, we fill a gap in the standard text by introducing a unifying probabilistic model for discriminative semi-supervised learning, mirroring that for classical generative methods. We show that several SSL methods can be theoretically justified under our model as inducing approximate priors over predicted parameters of p(y|x). For tasks where labels represent binary attributes, our model leads to a principled approach to neuro-symbolic SSL, bridging the divide between statistical learning and logical rules.


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