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A Novel Non-Invasive Estimation of Respiration Rate from Photoplethysmograph Signal Using Machine Learning Model

by   Md Nazmul Islam Shuzan, et al.

Respiratory ailments such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, and lung cancer are life-threatening. Respiration rate (RR) is a vital indicator of the wellness of a patient. Continuous monitoring of RR can provide early indication and thereby save lives. However, a real-time continuous RR monitoring facility is only available at the intensive care unit (ICU) due to the size and cost of the equipment. Recent researches have proposed Photoplethysmogram (PPG) and/ Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals for RR estimation however, the usage of ECG is limited due to the unavailability of it in wearable devices. Due to the advent of wearable smartwatches with built-in PPG sensors, it is now being considered for continuous monitoring of RR. This paper describes a novel approach to RR estimation using machine learning (ML) models with the PPG signal features. Feature selection algorithms were used to reduce computational complexity and the chance of overfitting. The best ML model and the best feature selection algorithm combination was fine-tuned to optimize its performance using hyperparameter optimization. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) with fitrgp feature selection algorithm outperformed all other combinations and exhibits a root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and two-standard deviation (2SD) of 2.57, 1.91, and 5.13 breaths per minute, respectively. This ML model based RR estimation can be embedded in wearable devices for real-time continuous monitoring of the patient.


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