I Introduction
From the microscopic point of view, all of natural scenes, providing our visual stimulus, can be seen as a patchwork of various texture patterns. As a biological knowledges, our visual system recognize the objects by their shapes in primary visual cortex. In addition to this, recent studies have shown that their textures also be important property for recognizing and segmentation of the objects in our higherlevel visual cortex [1]
. Thus, availability of texture description is important for modeling of natural images in the field of computer vision. Especially, our research focus is to construct a generative model for various texture patterns.
Most of recent studies of texture modeling, achieving a good benchmark results, are based on the Markov Random Field (MRF) and Gibb’s sampling [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. These MRF based models assume that textures are characterized as just a 2dimensional probabilistic distributions. Therefore, the most MRF based texture models would have lack of consideration for “a perceptually equivalence”.
The perceptually equivalence is our perceptual property considering that “the pattern A and B are came from same texture”. The perceptually equivalence is not referred explicitly from structural modeling, such as MRF models, but also naturally required as in a part of modeling of natural images. Figure 1 shows the example of the perceptually equivalence, which are the pictures of same materials but different illuminance. We can find that the structural/geometric differences, that are overexposures and shadow directions, came from the different light source, on the other hand, we can also decide that the both of them are same textures.
Portilla and Simoncelli proposed a texture feature, which considers such a perceptual aspects, and a generative model on the basis of feature matching reconstruction [8, 9]. Hereafter, we call their texture feature, “a PortillaSimoncelli statistics”, PSS for short. The PSS is influenced by bilogical knowledges, the receptive field of the primary visual cortex and Gaborlike filters especially in the area V1. The PSS is based on waveletlike multiscale image decomposition method, which has translationinvariance and rotationinvariance, known as a steerable filter pyramid[10]. The PSS is consists of a marginal statistics over decomposed images, which act as constraints of the texture structure. Simoncelli et al. showed that the PSS could charactarize and generate various textures [8, 11, 12, 9]
. In recent, moreover, some studies report that the PSS could express the selective neuronal activity in area V4 of macaque
[13] and in area V2 of humans’ cerebral cortex [14]. These reports were implying that the PSS could be appropriate representation of our texture recognition mechanisms.Considering the modeling of textures in natural images, hereafter we call it as “natural textures”, the PSS would be good representation, however, the PSS would have redundancy between its elements, because the natural textures typically have certain structure. Therefore, the PSS extracted by natural textures could be phrased with more simplified representation.
This paper proposes a dimension reduction method to grasp the latent factors in the PSS of the natural textures. Our method is based on Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA) and focusing on known correlation of the PSS. We achieve a 88.8[%] dimension reduction from raw PSS to phrase natural texture dataset, which is hard to apply a plain PCA.
Ii A PortillaSimoncelli statistics
This section gives an overview of the PSS used in our study as a texture feature.
Iia A steerable filter pyramid
A steerable filter pyramid [10, 11] is multiscale and directive image decomposition method which partially imitates the orientation selectivity of humans’ visual systems. The steerable filter pyramid could be “steered” its decomposition traits by 2 parameters, a number of decomposition scales and a number of decomposition orientations/directions , thus, this name was given. These properties originated in complex orthogonal Wavelet transform and Gabor filters bank.
The steerable filter pyramid was defined in Fourier domain, in similar to wavelet transform. Figure 2 shows a Fourier domain block diagram of a steerable filter pyramid interpreted as a linear system. Let be an input image in spatial domain, and be a polar representation of an input image in Fourier domain, each transfer elements in Figure 2 would be given by:
(1) 
(2) 
the bandpass transfer element was decomposed into radial part and angular part defined as
(3) 
(4) 
denotes a coordinate of which depends on number of orientation , given by
(5) 
Lowpass transfer element had to be defined to reject a band exeeding the Nyquist limit, to make this decomposition a complete system.
(6) 
Refer to Eq.6, the highpass transfer element follows the lowpass residual as
(7) 
As shown in Figure 2, the steerable filter pyramid would consist of recursion of subsystem . The multiscaleness of the steerable filter pyramid was provided by the recursion of them, and the orientation selectivity was provided by a parallelism of them.
IiB Construction of the PSS
The PSS is constructed as a list of 10types of statistics , came from the steerable filter pyramid.
IiB1 Descriptive statistics of pixel values ()
IiB2 Descriptive statistics of each scales ()
Skewness and kurtosis of reconstructed images with each scales of steerable filter pyramid,
including a lowpass residual .
( dimensions)
IiB3 Autocorrelation of each decompositions ()
neighbor autocorrelation of reconstructed images with each decompositions
(scales and orientations) of the steerable filter pyramid.
( dimensions)
IiB4 Autocorrelaton of each scales ()
neighbor autocorrelation of reconstructed images with each scales of steerable filter pyramid,
including a lowpass residual .
( dimensions)
IiB5 Crosscorrelations between decomposed images for each scales ()
Crosscorrelation of decomposed image with each scales between each orientations.
( dimensions)
IiB6 Crosscorrelations between reconstructed images for each scales ()
Crosscorrelation of reconstructed images with each scales,
including a lowpass residual ,
between each orientations.
( dimensions)
IiB7 Crosscorrerations between each reconstructed images ()
Crosscorreration of reconstructed images with each scales,
including a lowpass residual ,
and each orientations.
( dimensions)
IiB8 Crosscorrelations between each decomposed images for each decompositions ()
Crosscorrelation of decomposed image for each decompositions
(scales and orientations).
( dimensions)
IiB9 Means of each reconstruted images ()
Means of pixel values of reconstructed images with each decompositions,
including a lowpass residual and highpass residual .
( dimensions)
IiB10 Variance of highpass residual ()
Variance of pixel values of reconstructed images with highpass residual .
(1 dimension)
Dimensionality of the PSS will be determined by parameters of steerable filter pyramid , , and neighbor of pixel space . In our experiments, we use parameters as according to [9] consistently. The dimensionality of the PSS will be 1784 by these parameters.
Iii Hierarchical Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
In this paper, we propose a probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) [15]
based model for dimension reduction, which focuses to known structure of the PSS. PPCA is a statistical method to estimate the latent variables which generate an input data essentially. It is similar to deterministic principal component analysis (PCA) and provides a same result usually, however, PPCA is a probabilistic model which assume that the input data would be generated under the Gaussian distribution and the Gaussian noize. Therefore, PPCA has a merit of an optimization under the highdimensional input space.
PPCA could be of use for dimension reduction in most cases, however, we could sometimes know the structure or correlation of the input data in advance. For example, construction of the PSS was built up gradually with 10types of statistics. In other words, the PSS has a groupstructure between its components. Considering such a known structure, it is possible to grasp more effective contracted representation of the input data.
We propose a novel architecture of PPCA, considering such a known structure of the input data, a “hierarchical probabilistic principal component analysis” (HPPCA). Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of the HPPCA. The HPPCA applies a hierarchical dimension reduction which is based on a structure of the PSS. First, the HPPCA applies a dimension reduction for each classes
with distinct PPCA models. Second, reduced representations will be concatenated into an intermediate vector, finally, conclusive reduced representation will be given as an output of the final PPCA.
Iv Materials
Iva Texture Dataset
We evaluated our model on natural textures from Kylberg Texture Dataset v. 1.0 [16]. Figure 5
shows examples of texture images in Kylberg Texture Dataset. This dataset contains 28 classes of natural textures, which are the macro photographs of realworld surfaces. Each classes have 1920 patches of grayscale images normalized with a mean value of 127 and a standard deviation of 40. The patches have a resolution of 576
576 pixels and resized into 128128 pixel to adjust the model input. To evaluate the model performance, we used 1720 patches for training, and 200 patches for evaluation.IvB Performance index of texture similarity
To evaluate the performance of texture reconstruction, we chose a Texture Similarity Score (TSS) as an index of texture simirality [2]. For a source texture image and generated texture sample , the TSS will be given by:
(8) 
denotes patch within the test region of the image and
is the number of possible unique patches in the test region. In other words, the TSS denotes the maximum cosine similarity between sample patches and possible source texture region, known as “the maximum normalized cross correlation”.
A patch and sample of size pixel was adopted to define the TSS in our experiments, according to previous work [2].
V Experiment
Va A preliminary experiment: dimension reduction with conventional PPCA
As a preliminary experiment, we tried to obrain a dimensionreduced representation with plain linearPPCA directly. Figure 6 shows a reconstruction result by 1784 to 1000 dimension reduction. The reconstruction result does not reproduce the source texture structure by the little dimension reduction which expect to preserve the source PSS structure. This result implies that the plain PPCA could not grasp the latent variables of the PSS sufficiently.
VB Appropriate dimensionality of HPPCA
Dimension reduction with the HPPCA would be steered by 2 part, to get an intermediate representation and to obtain a conclusive representation, respectively. Because of the topdown dimension reduction, we have to determine a dimension reduction rate of intermediate PPCAs at first. We chose the cumulative contribution ratio as an index of dimension reduction of each PPCAs. We determined the dimensions of each PPCAs by variation of the TSS with cumulative contribution ratio.
Plot of the TSS vs cumulative contribution ratio of intermediate PPCAs is shown in Figure 7. It was shown that the TSS was monotonically increased as the cumulative contribution ratio, however, it exeeded machine epsion of 32bit float after . Thus, we chose and 965dimensional intermediate representation.
By given intermediate layer, we chose a conclusive dimensionality of model output. Plot of the TSS vs conclusive dimensionality of the HPPCA is shown in Figure 8. The TSS seemed to saturate around equal 150 to 200. We adopt as conclusive reduced representation of PSS in our experiments.
VC Qualitative evaluation
This section shows that the contracted representation by our proposed method can reconstruct the textures with perceptually equivalence. The reconstructed textures by contracted PSS using the HPPCA disscussed in previous section shown in Figure 9. The fine textures, that are ceiling1, cushion1, and blanket1, were wellreproduced by reduced PSS (9 first row). On the other hand, however, the coarse textures, which have large patterns, sometimes have trouble with a reproducing the continuous (9 second and third row). This could be due to the lack of reproduce the lowfrequency component of reduced PSS with the HPPCA. Nevertheless, the most of reconstruction results might be said to reproduce source texture structure and we could determine these textures were almost much the same.
Vi Discussion and conclusion
The dimension reduction method of the PortillaSimoncelli statistics, that is a perceptual texture feature, using the hierarchical probabilistic principal component analysis was introduced in this paper. We achieved a 88.8 [%] dimension reduction from the raw PSS preserving the source texture structures in reconstruction.
The HPPCA model could be read as the GaussianGaussian restricted Boltzmann machine adopted a sparsity in its connections
[17]. Such connectionism would be make the PPCA easier to grasp the latent structure of the input space. In future work, we intend to analyze mathematically the machanizm of the HPPCA model and build more generalized texture model via the largescaled natural image datasets.References
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