A general theoretical scheme for shape-programming of incompressible hyperelastic shells through differential growth

by   Zhanfeng Li, et al.

In this paper, we study the problem of shape-programming of incompressible hyperelastic shells through differential growth. The aim of the current work is to determine the growth tensor (or growth functions) that can produce the deformation of a shell to the desired shape. First, a consistent finite-strain shell theory is introduced. The shell equation system is established from the 3D governing system through a series expansion and truncation approach. Based on the shell theory, the problem of shape-programming is studied under the stress-free assumption. For a special case in which the parametric coordinate curves generate a net of curvature lines on the target surface, the sufficient condition to ensure the vanishing of the stress components is analyzed, from which the explicit expression of the growth tensor can be derived. In the general case, we conduct the variable changes and derive the total growth tensor by considering a two-step deformation of the shell. With these obtained results, a general theoretical scheme for shape-programming of thin hyperelastic shells through differential growth is proposed. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme, several nature-inspired examples are studied. The derived growth tensors in these examples have also been implemented in the numerical simulations to verify their correctness and accuracy. The simulation results show that the target shapes of the shell samples can be recovered completely. The scheme for shape-programming proposed in the current work is helpful in designing and manufacturing intelligent soft devices.


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