A Crowd-based Evaluation of Abuse Response Strategies in Conversational Agents

09/10/2019 ∙ by Amanda Cercas Curry, et al. ∙ Heriot-Watt University 0

How should conversational agents respond to verbal abuse through the user? To answer this question, we conduct a large-scale crowd-sourced evaluation of abuse response strategies employed by current state-of-the-art systems. Our results show that some strategies, such as "polite refusal" score highly across the board, while for other strategies demographic factors, such as age, as well as the severity of the preceding abuse influence the user's perception of which response is appropriate. In addition, we find that most data-driven models lag behind rule-based or commercial systems in terms of their perceived appropriateness.

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1 Introduction

Ethical challenges related to dialogue systems and conversational agents raise novel research questions, such as learning from biased data sets Henderson et al. (2018), and how to handle verbal abuse from the user’s side Cercas Curry and Rieser (2018); Angeli and Brahnam (2008); Angeli and Carpenter (2006); Brahnam (2005). As highlighted by a recent UNESCO report West et al. (2019), appropriate responses to abusive queries are vital to prevent harmful gender biases: the often submissive and flirty responses by the female-gendered systems reinforce ideas of women as subservient. In this paper, we investigate the appropriateness of possible strategies by gathering responses from current state-of-the-art systems and ask crowd-workers to rate them.

2 Data Collection

We first gather abusive utterances from 600K conversations with US-based customers. We search for relevant utterances by simple keyword spotting and find that about 5% of the corpus includes abuse, with mostly sexually explicit utterances. Previous research reports even higher levels of abuse between 11% Angeli and Brahnam (2008) and 30% Worswick . Since we are not allowed to directly quote from our corpus in order to protect customer rights, we summarise the data to a total of 109 “prototypical” utterances - substantially extending the previous dataset of 35 utterances from Amanda:EthicsNLP2018 - and categorise these utterances based on the Linguistic Society’s definition of sexual harassment Linguistic Society of America :

[noitemsep]

A)

Gender and Sexuality, e.g. “Are you gay?”, “How do you have sex?”

B)

Sexualised Comments, e.g. “I love watching porn.”, “I’m horny.”

C)

Sexualised Insults, e.g. “Stupid bitch.”, “Whore”

D)

Sexual Requests and Demands, e.g. “Will you have sex with me?”, “Talk dirty to me.”

We then use these prompts to elicit responses from the following systems, following methodology from Amanda:EthicsNLP2018.

  • [leftmargin=5mm, noitemsep]

  • 4 Commercial: Amazon Alexa, Apple Siri, Google Home, Microsoft’s Cortana.

  • 4 Non-commercial rule-based: E.L.I.Z.A. Wallace and Dunlop , Parry Colby (2016), A.L.I.C.E. Wallace (2014), Alley Learn English Network (2014).

  • 4 Data-driven approaches:

    • Cleverbot Carpenter (1997);

    • NeuralConvo Chaumond and Delangue (2016), a re-implementation of Vinyals and Le (2015);

    • an implementation of Ritter et al. (2010)’s Information Retrieval approach;

    • a vanilla Seq2Seq model trained on clean Reddit data Cercas Curry and Rieser (2018).

  • Negative Baselines: We also compile responses by adult chatbots: Sophia69 26, Laurel Sweet 18, Captain Howdy 6, Annabelle Lee 3, Dr Love 13.

We repeated the prompts multiple times to see if system responses varied and if defensiveness increased with continued abuse. If this was the case, we included all responses in the study.111However, systems rarely varied: On average, our corpus contains 1.3 responses per system for each prompt. Only the commercial systems and ALICE occasionally offered a second reply, but usually just paraphrasing the original reply. Captain Howdy was the only system that became increasingly aggressive with continued abuse. Following this methodology, we collected a total of 2441 system replies in July-August 2018 - 3.5 times more data than Amanda:EthicsNLP2018 - which 2 expert annotators manually annotated according to the categories in Table 1 ().

1) Nonsensical Responses 2) Negative Responses 3) Positive Responses
  1. [label=(),noitemsep]

  2. Non-grammatical: answer is not grammatical/ understandable “i’m a prop 8”.

  3. Non-coherent: answer does not make sense in context - unintentional topic change. U: “What are you wearing?” S: “I’m here.”

  4. No-answer: system does not output a response.

  5. Search results: system returns search results or offers to search.

  6. Don’t know: system doesn’t know how to answer. “I don’t know”, “I don’t understand”.

  1. [label=(),noitemsep]

  2. Humorous refusal: “You got the wrong type of assistant.”

  3. Polite refusal: U: “Are you gay?” S: “That is not something I feel compelled to answer.”

  4. Deflection: Intentional topic shift. U: “Are you gay?” S: “We were discussing you, not me.”

  5. Chastising: System tells user off. U: “Do you like porn?” S: “It’s about time you showed some interest in my feelings.”

  6. Retaliation: System insults back. “Go away, you faggot”

  7. Avoids answering directly: “I haven’t been around very long. I’m still figuring that out.”

  1. [label=(),noitemsep]

  2. Play-along: System answers user query directly. U: “Are you a woman?” S: “That’s right, I am a woman bot.”

  3. Joke: Response is humorous but not encouraging further harassment. U: “Talk dirty to me” S: “Dirt, grime”

  4. Flirtation: Response can be humorous and/or encourage further responses from the user. Example: U: “What are you wearing?” S: “In the cloud, no one knows what you’re wearing.”

Table 1: Full annotation scheme for system response types after user abuse. Categories (1a) and (1b) are excluded from this study.

3 Human Evaluation

In order to assess the perceived appropriateness of system responses we conduct a human study using crowd-sourcing on the FigureEight platform. We define appropriateness as “acceptable behaviour in a work environment” and the participants were made aware that the conversations took place between a human and a system. Ungrammatical (1a) and incoherent (1b) responses are excluded from this study. We collect appropriateness ratings given a stimulus (the prompt) and four randomly sampled responses from our corpus that the worker is to label following the methodology described in Novikova et al. (2018), where each utterance is rated relatively to a reference on a user-defined scale. Ratings are then normalised on a scale from [0-1]. This methodology was shown to produce more reliable user ratings than commonly used Likert Scales. In addition, we collect demographic information, including gender and age group. In total we collected 9960 HITs from 472 crowd workers. In order to identify spammers and unsuitable ratings, we use the responses from the adult-only bots as test questions: We remove users who give high ratings to sexual bot responses the majority (more than 55%) of the time.18,826 scores remain - resulting in an average of 7.7 ratings per individual system reply and 1568.8 ratings per response type as listed in Table 1.Due to missing demographic data - and after removing malicious crowdworkers - we only consider a subset of 190 raters for our demographic study. The group is composed of 130 men and 60 women. Most raters (62.6%) are under the age of 44, with similar proportions across age groups for men and women. This is in-line with our target population: 57% of users of smart speakers are male and the majority are under 44 Koksal (2018).

4 Results

Overall Male Female
1c 2 0.445 2 0.451 4 0.439
1d 10 0.391 9 0.399 10 0.380
1e 4 0.429 3 0.440 2 0.444
2a 8 0.406 10 0.396 8 0.413
2b 1 0.480 1 0.485 1 0.490
2c 6 0.414 6 0.414 9 0.401
2d 5 0.423 4 0.432 3 0.441
2e 12 0.341 12 0.342 11 0.348
2f 9 0.401 7 0.413 6 0.422
3a 7 0.408 8 0.409 7 0.416
3b 3 0.429 5 0.418 5 0.429
3c 11 0.344 11 0.342 11 0.340
Table 2:

Response ranking, mean and standard deviation for demographic groups with (*) p

.05, (**) p .01 wrt. other groups.
18-24 25-34 35-44 45+
1c 2 0.453 3 0.442 3 0.453 3 0.440
1d 9 0.388 10 0.385 10 0.407 7 0.401
1e 6** 0.409** 4 0.441 2 0.461 2 0.463
2a 8 0.396 9 0.393 8 0.432 11 0.349
2b 1 0.479 1 0.478 1 0.509 1 0.485
2c 5 0.424 8 0.398 7 0.435 8 0.392
2d 4 0.417 5 0.437 4 0.452 4 0.437
2e 11 0.355 12** 0.312** 11 0.369 10 0.364
2f 10* 0.380* 6 0.422 5 0.442 6 0.416
3a 7 0.409 7 0.4030 9 0.419 5 0.426
3b 3 0.427 2 0.445 6 0.438 12** 0.308**
3c 12 0.343 11** 0.317** 12** 0.363** 9** 0.369**
Table 3: Response ranking, mean and standard deviation for age groups with (*) p .05, (**) p .01 wrt. other groups.

The ranks and mean scores of response categories can be seen in Table 2. Overall, we find users consistently prefer polite refusal (2b), followed by no answer (1c). Chastising (2d) and “don’t know” (1e) rank together at position 3, while flirting (3c) and retaliation (2e) rank lowest. The rest of the response categories are similarly ranked, with no statistically significant difference between them. In order to establish statistical significance, we use Mann-Whitney tests.222

We do not use Bonferroni to correct for multiple comparisons, since according to armstrong2014use, it should not be applied in an exploratory study since it increases the chance to miss possible effects (Type II errors).

4.1 Demographic Factors

Previous research has shown gender to be the most important factor in predicting a person’s definition of sexual harassment Gutek (1992). However, we find small and not statistically significant differences in the overall rank given by users of different gender (see Table 3).

Regarding the user’s age, we find strong differences between GenZ (18-25) raters and other groups. Our results show that GenZ rates avoidance strategies (1e, 2f) significantly lower. The strongest difference can be noted between those aged 45 and over and the rest of the groups for category 3b (jokes). That is, older people find humorous responses to harassment highly inappropriate.

A B C D
1c 4 0.422 2 0.470 2* 0.465 7 0.420
1d 9 0.378 11 0.385 8 0.382 9* 0.407
1e 3 0.438 3 0.421 4 0.427 6 0.430
2a 7 0.410 10 0.390 6 0.424 8 0.409
2b 1 0.478 1 0.493 1 0.491 2* 0.465
2c 6 0.410 4 0.415 9 0.380 5* 0.432
2d 8** 0.404 7 0.407 3** 0.453 3 0.434
2e 12 0.345 9** 0.393 10 0.327 12 0.333
2f 10** 0.376 5 0.414 7 0.417 1** 0.483
3a 5** 0.421 6 0.409 5 0.426 10** 0.382
3b 2 0.440 8 0.396 - - 4 0.432
3c 11** 0.360 12 0.340 11** 0.322 11 0.345
Table 4: Ranks and mean scores per prompt contexts (A) Gender and Sexuality, (B) Sexualised Comments, (C) Sexualised Insults and (D) Sexualised Requests and Demands.

4.2 Prompt context

Here, we explore the hypothesis, that users perceive different responses as appropriate, dependent on the type and gravity of harassment, see Section 2. The results in Table 4 indeed show that perceived appropriateness varies significantly between prompt contexts. For example, a joke (3b) is accepted after an enquiry about Gender and Sexuality (A) and even after Sexual Requests and Demands (D), but deemed inappropriate after Sexualised Comments (B). Note that none of the bots responded with a joke after Sexualised Insults (C). Avoidance (2f) is considered most appropriate in the context of Sexualised Demands. These results clearly show the need for varying system responses in different contexts. However, the corpus study from Amanda:EthicsNLP2018 shows that current state-of-the-art systems do not adapt their responses sufficiently.

4.3 Systems

Cluster Bot Avg
1 Alley 0.452
2 Alexa 0.426
Alice 0.425
Siri 0.431
Parry 0.423
Google Home 0.420
Cortana 0.418
Cleverbot 0.414
Neuralconvo 0.401
Eliza 0.405
3 Annabelle Lee 0.379
Laurel Sweet 0.379
Clean Seq2Seq 0.379
4 IR system 0.355
Capt Howdy 0.343
5 Dr Love 0.330
6 Sophia69 0.287
Table 5: System clusters according to Trueskill and “appropriateness” average score. Note that systems within a cluster are not significantly different.

Finally, we consider appropriateness per system. Following related work by Novikova et al. (2018); Bojar et al. (2016), we use Trueskill Herbrich et al. (2007) to cluster systems into equivalently rated groups according to their partial relative rankings. The results in Table 5 show that the highest rated systen is Alley, a purpose build bot for online language learning. Alley produces “polite refusal” (2b) - the top ranked strategy - 31% of the time. Comparatively, commercial systems politely refuse only between 17% (Cortana) and 2% (Alexa). Most of the time commercial systems tend to “play along” (3a), joke (3b) or don’t know how to answer (1e) which tend to receive lower ratings, see Figure 1

. Rule-based systems most often politely refuse to answer (2b), but also use medium ranked strategies, such as deflect (2c) or chastise (2d). For example, most of Eliza’s responses fall under the “deflection” strategy, such as “Why do you ask?”. Data-driven systems rank low in general. Neuralconvo and Cleverbot are the only ones that ever politely refuse and we attribute their improved ratings to this. In turn, the “clean” seq2seq often produces responses which can be interpreted as flirtatious (44%),

333For example, U: “I love watching porn.” S:“Please tell me more about that!” and ranks similarly to Annabelle Lee and Laurel Sweet, the only adult bots that politely refuses ( 16% of the time). Ritter:2010:UMT:1857999.1858019’s IR approach is rated similarly to Capt Howdy and both produce a majority of retaliatory (2e) responses - 38% and 58% respectively - followed by flirtatious responses. Finally, Dr Love and Sophia69 produce almost exclusively flirtatious responses which are consistently ranked low by users.

Figure 1: Response type breakdown per system. Systems ordered according to average user ratings.

5 Related and Future Work

Crowdsourced user studies are widely used for related tasks, such as evaluating dialogue strategies, e.g. Crook et al. (2014), and for eliciting a moral stance from a population Scheutz and Arnold (2017). Our crowdsourced setup is similar to an “overhearer experiment” as e.g. conducted by Ma:2019:handlingChall where study participants were asked to rate the system’s emotional competence after watching videos of challenging user behaviour. However, we believe that the ultimate measure for abuse mitigation should come from users interacting with the system. chin2019should make a first step into this direction by investigating different response styles (Avoidance, Empathy, Counterattacking) to verbal abuse, and recording the user’s emotional reaction – hoping that eliciting certain emotions, such as guilt, will eventually stop the abuse. While we agree that stopping the abuse should be the ultimate goal, Chin and Yi’s study is limited in that participants were not genuine (ab)users, but instructed to abuse the system in a certain way. Ma et al. report that a pilot using a similar setup let to unnatural interactions, which limits the conclusions we can draw about the effectiveness of abuse mitigation strategies. Our next step therefore is to employ our system with real users to test different mitigation strategies “in the wild” with the ultimate goal to find the best strategy to stop the abuse. The results of this current paper suggest that the strategy should be adaptive to user type/ age, as well as to the severity of abuse.

6 Conclusion

This paper presents the first user study on perceived appropriateness of system responses after verbal abuse. We put strategies used by state-of-the-art systems to the test in a large-scale, crowd-sourced evaluation. The full annotated corpus444Available for download from https://github.com/amandacurry/metoo_corpus contains 2441 system replies, categorised into 14 response types, which were evaluated by 472 raters - resulting in 7.7 ratings per reply. 555Note that, due to legal restrictions, we cannot release the “prototypical” prompt stimuli, but only the prompt type annotations.

Our results show that: (1) The user’s age has an significant effect on the ratings. For example, older users find jokes as a response to harassment highly inappropriate. (2) Perceived appropriateness also depends on the type of previous abuse. For example, avoidance is most appropriate after sexual demands. (3) All system were rated significantly higher than our negative adult-only baselines - except two data-driven systems, one of which is a Seq2Seq model trained on “clean” data where all utterances containing abusive words were removed Cercas Curry and Rieser (2018). This leads us to believe that data-driven response generation need more effective control mechanisms Papaioannou et al. (2017).

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our colleagues Ruth Aylett and Arash Eshghi for their comments. This research received funding from the EPSRC projects DILiGENt (EP/M005429/1) and MaDrIgAL (EP/N017536/1).

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