# A Complexity Dichotomy for Permutation Pattern Matching on Grid Classes

Permutation Pattern Matching (PPM) is the problem of deciding for a given pair of permutations P and T whether the pattern P is contained in the text T. Bose, Buss and Lubiw showed that PPM is NP-complete. In view of this result, it is natural to ask how the situation changes when we restrict the pattern P to a fixed permutation class C; this is known as the C-Pattern PPM problem. Grid classes are special kind of permutation classes, consisting of permutations admitting a grid-like decomposition into simpler building blocks. Of particular interest are the so-called monotone grid classes, in which each building block is a monotone sequence. Recently, it has been discovered that grid classes, especially the monotone ones, play a fundamental role in the understanding of the structure of general permutation classes. This motivates us to study the hardness of C-Pattern PPM for a (monotone) grid class C. We provide a complexity dichotomy for C-Pattern PPM when C is taken to be a monotone grid class. Specifically, we show that the problem is polynomial-time solvable if a certain graph associated with C, called the cell graph, is a forest, and it is NP-complete otherwise. We further generalize our results to grid classes whose blocks belong to classes of bounded grid-width. We show that the C-Pattern PPM for such a grid class C is polynomial-time solvable if the cell graph of C avoids a cycle or a certain special type of path, and it is NP-complete otherwise.

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