A Characterization of Individualization-Refinement Trees

09/15/2021
by   Markus Anders, et al.
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Individualization-Refinement (IR) algorithms form the standard method and currently the only practical method for symmetry computations of graphs and combinatorial objects in general. Through backtracking, on each graph an IR-algorithm implicitly creates an IR-tree whose order is the determining factor of the running time of the algorithm. We give a precise and constructive characterization which trees are IR-trees. This characterization is applicable both when the tree is regarded as an uncolored object but also when regarded as a colored object where vertex colors stem from a node invariant. We also provide a construction that given a tree produces a corresponding graph whenever possible. This provides a constructive proof that our necessary conditions are also sufficient for the characterization.

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